The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, Turkish: Nahcivan Özek Cumhuriyeti, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика) is an exclave of Azerbaijan.
In 1604, the Persian Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) forced all the Armenians of the region to leave their homes and move to Persia, settling many of them near Isfahan on a place named New Julfa since most of the residents were from the original Julfa. The Nakhichevan khanate emerged in the region after the death of Nadir Shah Afshar (1736-’47). After the two Russo-Persian wars and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Nakhichevan khanate passed to Russia in 1828. From the onset of Russian rule, Armenians began to resettle in the area in larger numbers than the trickle which had gone on since the original exodus. Nakhichevan khanate was dissolved in 1840, and the area became Nakhichevan uyezd of Erivan governorate of the Russian Empire.
Arms of Naxçivan district
Arms: Per fess: The chief per pale: 1. Or, Mount Ararat crested with Noah’s Ark proper; 2. Or, a fess wavy Azure; and a demi-escutcheon of the upper half of the arms of Georgia; The base Gules, a spear per fess in chief and three quivers per pale Or.
After the February Revolution the region was under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government. In 1918 the Musavat Party proclaimed in Nakhichevan the Republic of Araks, while the Armenian Republic claimed Nakhichevan for itself, as a large minority of the population was Armenian. In the autumn of 1918 Nakhichevan was occupied by British troops. After the withdrawal of the British troops Nakhichevan was occupied by the 11th Red Army and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan (Naxçıvan Sovet Sosialsit Respublikası) was proclaimed on 28 July 1920. A Nakhchivan Autonomous State (Naxçıvan Muxtar Diyarı) existed from 1923 to 1924. On the 9 February 1924 a Nakhichevan Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic was formed within the Azerbaijan SSR.
By art 111 of the Constitution adopted at the 10th session of the Nakhichevan Soviet on 18 September 1938, a coat of arms was adopted for the Na. A.S.S.R.. It was:
Arms: A hammer and a sickle in saltire, in base a landscape with a derrick and a rising sun radiant, all proper.
Crest: a mullet Or voided Gules.
Garland: Ears of wheat and branches of cotton proper, tied with a ribbon Gules extending per fess in chief.
Motto: On the dexter: АЗƏРБАИЧАН СОВЕТ СОСЯЛИСТ РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ and БУТУН-ƟЛКƏЛƏРИН ПРОЛЕТАРЛАРЫ БИРЛЭШИН!
On the sinister: The same name and motto but in Armenian, in golden lettering on a red ribbon.
On the lower windings: NAXÇIVAN A.S.S.R. on the dexter and the same name in Armenian script on the sinister.
Emblem of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R, 1937
Art. 111 of 18.09.1937 reads:
"Государственным гербом Нахичеванской Автономной Советской Социалистической Республики является государственный герб Азербайджанской ССР, который представляет собой изображение серпа и молота, нефтяной вышки на фоне восходящего солнца, обрамленных венцом из хлопка и колосьев, с надписью на азербайджанском и армянском языках: "Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика", "Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!" и "Нахичеванская АССР". В верхней части герба - пятиконечная звезда".
On 25 August 1938 the texts in Armenian were replaced by texts in Russian:
Emblem of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R., 1938
In January 1990 Nakhichevan declared its independence from the USSR to protest against the suppression of the national movement in Azerbaijan, and became the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) within the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan a year later. It now is internationally recognized as a part of Azerbaijan governed by its own elected parliament.
The republic uses the emblem of the Republic of Azerbaijan without any addition.
Æ See also: Nakhichevan A.S.S.R.
© Hubert de Vries 2014-04-22