MADHYA PRADESH

 

 

MADHYA PRADESH

Princely States First Part

Ajaigarh to Gwalior

Princely States Second Part

Indore to Sitamau

 

Princely States

 

Ajaigarh

Alirajpur

Baoni

Barwani

Bhopal

Bijawar

Ch´hatarpur

Chichli

Datia

Dewas Jr

Dewas Sr

Dhar

Gwalior

Holkar/Indore

Jaora

Jhabua

Jigni

Khilchipur

Nagod

Narsimhapur

Narsingharh

Orchha

Panna

Rajgarh

Ratlam

Rewah

Sailana

Sirguja

Sitamau

 

 

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History

 

Most of Madhya Pradesh came under Mughal rule during the reign of the emperor Akbar (1556–1605). Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal control began to weaken, and the Marathas began to expand from their base in central Maharashtra. Between 1720 and 1760 the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, and Maratha clans were established semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Maratha Peshwa. The Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, and the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal and Gondwana as well as Vidarbha in Maharashtra. Jhansi was founded by a Maratha general. Bhopal was ruled by a Muslim dynasty descended from Dost Mohammed Khan, an Afghan General in the Mughal army. Maratha expansion was checked at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

The British were expanding their Indian dominions from bases in Bengal, Bombay, and Madras, and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars were fought between 1775 and 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War left the British supreme in India. Most of Madhya Pradesh, including the large states of Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Rewa, and dozens of smaller states, became princely states of British India, and the Mahakoshal region became a British province, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1853 the British annexed the state of Nagpur, which included southeastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra and most of Chhattisgarh, which were combined with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces in 1861. The princely states of northern Madhya Pradesh were governed by the Central India Agency.

 

After Indian independence

Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. Madhya Pradesh, in its present form, came into existence on 1 November 2000, following its bifurcation to create a new state of Chhattisgarh. The undivided Madhya Pradesh was founded on 1 November 1956. Madhya Pradesh, because of its central location in India, has remained a crucible of historical currents from North, South, East and West.

 

Emblem

The emblem of Madhya Pradesh is a target Argent, a boddhi-tree Vert, charged with the national emblem of India. The emblem is surrounded by a yellow bordure with the title of the state and the motto of India in black lettering, and two stalks of the main cash crops Vert. It is supported by a twenty-four petalled lotus-flower, Gules.

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this article

 

Police

 

 

 

 

 

Princely States of Madhya Pradesh

First Part: Ajaigarh to Gwalior

 

AJAIGARH

 

Ranjor Singh Sahib Bahadur

 Maharaja 1859-1919

 

   

Raja of ....

 

Arms: Parted per fess embattled Gules and Vert, a pale Or gutty de sang.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter lambrequined Gules and Vert, a tower proper.

Supporters: A tiger (Panthera tigris - Felidæ) and a sambur (Rusa unicolor - Cervidæ) proper.

Motto: Ranadhira Ajayyavira (Steadfast in Battle, Invincible Hero)

(T. 1)


ALIRAJPUR

 

Rup Deo

Rana 1871-1881

 

Rana of ....

 

Arms: Lozengy Tenné and Argent, a tower on a hill between three fountains proper.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Tenné and Argent, a hare courant proper.

Supporters: Two boars proper.

Motto: Isvara, meri Catan, mera Garh. (God, my Rock, my Fortress).

(T.2)

 

BAONI

 

Imamuddaula Mehdi Husain Khan

Nawab 1859-1883

 

 

Nawab of ....

 

Arms: Gules, a fish embowed Argent within a bordure Vert charged with eight quatrefoils of the second.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Vert and Argent, an armed hand, holding a pen.

Supporters: Otters (Lutra lutra - Mustelidæ)

Motto: Alhukmu lillah wal mulku lillah (God Proposes and Disposes)

(T.6)


BARWANI

 

Rana Jashwant Singh

1839-1880

 

 

Rana of ....

 

Arms: Vairy, three barrulets Gules and a chief wavy Argent; on a canton of the second a sun in splendour (Or).

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Argent and Azure, a demi-lion rampant Gules.

Supporters: Ravine deer (Antilope cervicapra - Bovidæ) proper.

Motto: Ghatavata Hatesvarah (Lord of the Ford, the Road and the Market).

(T.17)


BHOPAL

 

Sultan Shah Jehan Begum

Nawab 1868-1901

Begum of ....

 

Arms: Vert, a tower Or and twelve musk-blossoms per bordure, proper.

Crest: On a helmet guardant, lambrequined Vert and Or, three arrows in saltire, charged with a fleur de lys Argent.

Supporters: Two fishes (máhsir) proper.

Motto: Nasr min Allah (Victory is from God)

(T. 11)

 

A modern rendering of the achievement of Bhopal by Harold Pereira, 1965

 

The shield of the Nawab of Bhopal is Vert, the colour approved by the Prophet. The tower was placed in the fess point at the wish of the Begum to perpetuate the history of Fateghur whose fort has more than once preserved the family from annihilation.

The twelve musk blossoms represent the twelve Imams which the Nawab, as a shia venerates. These are not to be confused with the four Imams of the Prophet. The shias count twelve Imams, the last of whom, Muhammad al Mehdi (873 A.D.), they suppose to be strill living, ready to appear and unite the two sects of Islam.

The Begum also chose the fish. She said, “Machli is feminine, and so, significant of feminine descent”. It also alludes to the Mahi Maratib received in honour from the Nizam. The crest is suitable to a Princess sprung from a line of warriors and occupying a throne won by the sword.  [1]

 

BIJAWAR

 

Sawai Bhan Pratap Singh Bahadur

Maharaja 1847-1899

Raja of .....

 

Arms: Per chevron Gules and Vert, a pale Or gutty de sang between two fountains in chief.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Gules and Vert, a pelican rousant proper.

Supporters: A bear and a chital (Axis axis - Cervidæ) proper.

Motto: Vir dordand var loha khand (The Arm of the Brave is as a Bar of Steel).

(T14)

 

CH’HATARPUR

 

Vishwanath Singh Bahadur

Maharaja 1867/1932

Raja of ....

 

Arms: Murrey, a globe between three flames Or; on a canton Argent a palm-leaf per pale proper.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Murrey and Or, two wings endorsed Or.

Supporters: Two saras (Ibis leucocephalus - Ciconiidæ) proper.

Motto: Agni pratap vishweshah (As Fire Resplendent, Lord of the World).

(T. 23)

 

CHICHLI

 

Bijai Bahadur Raja of...

 

The family banner is a yellow flag or pitambur with chauri and staff; the motto on the Raja’s seal is: Sado Sahai Narsingh Nizam Singh Sut Bijai Bahadur Singh, which is: May the God Narsingh always help Bijai Bahadur Singh, son of Nizam Singh.

(Leithbridge)

 

DATIA

 

Bhawani Singh Bahadur

Maharaja 1857-1907

 

 

Maharaja of ....

 

Arms: Purpure, a saltire Or gutty de sang between two swords in fess, points upwards, hilted of the second.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Purpure and Or, a partridge proper.

Supporters: A lion and a sambur (Rusa unicolor - Cervidæ) proper.

Motto: Vir dalap sharanadah (Lord of the Brave, Giver of Refuge).

(T 33)

 

DEWAS SR.

 

Krishnajirao II Puar

Raja 1860-1899

 

 

Raja of  .... Senior Branch

 

Arms: Gules, Hanuman statant Argent, holding a mace in his dexter and a lotus-blossom in his sinister hand; and a chief Or, a pellet (i.e. a roundle Sable) between two flames proper.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Gules and Argent, two wings erect Gules.

Supporters: Two elephants

Motto: Daladwayo bhati vansha.

(T. 26)

 

DEWAS JR

 

Narayanrao Dada Saheb Puar

Raja 1864-1892

 

 

Raja of .... Junior Branch

 

Arms: Gules, Hanuman statant Argent holding a mace in his dexter and a lotus-blossom in his sinister hand; within a bordure Or charged with four pellets (i.e. roundles Sable) and eight flames proper.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Gules and Argent, two wings erect Gules.

Supporters: Two elephants proper charged with mullets Argent.

Motto: Dalawayo bhati vansha.

(T. 27)

 

DHAR

 

The ruling family claims its descent from the ancient “Parmar” clan of the Rajputs, who ruled in Malwa from the 9th to the 13th Cent. A.D. The state takes its name after its capital, Dhar.

 

Anandrao III Puar

Raja 1857-1898

 

Raja of ...

 

Arms: Or, an eagle displayed Sable, holding a cobra proper in dexter claw; on a chief Argent, semé of double quatrefoils Gules, a gate of the second.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Or and Sable, a flame proper between wings erect Or.

Supporters: Two elephants.

Motto: Puar bina Dhar nahin Dhar bina puar nahin.

(T. 28)

 

GWALIOR

 

Gwalior was, with an area of 64,856 km2,   the largest state of the Central India Agency.

The founder of the state was Ranoji Scindia, who held a military rank bestowed by Chhatrapati Sahu and Maharaja of Satura. The present House of Sindhia traces its descent from a family, one branch of which held the hereditary appointment of Patil in a village near Satara. The head of the family was also

the recipient of a patent rank from Aurangzeb of Delhi After the death of Jankojirao II Sindhia without heirs in 1843 and the ensuing weakness of the eight years old adopted successor on the throne of Gwalior, the British took the opportunity to conquer Gwalior in December of the same year.

In 1852 under the able management of minister Dinkar Rao, radical reforms were introduced into

 

Rulers from the House of Sindhia

Madhavrao I Sindhia

 Maharaja 1761-1794

Daulatrao Sindhia

Maharaja 1794-1827

Jankojirao II Sindhia

Maharaja 1827-1843

Jayajirao Sindhia

Maharaja 1843-1886

Madhavrao II Sindhia

Maharaja 1886-1925

George Jiyajirao Sindhia

Maharaja 1925-1948

Rajpramukh 1948-1956

every department of the administration. As resistance against the British occupation seemed useless Jayajirao took the side of the British in the  rebellion of 1857. After he had been forced to flee to Agra he was restored by the British  in 1858.

From this time the modernisation of the state of Gwalior took momentum.

The last ruler, George Jivajirao Sindhia ruled as an absolute monarch until shortly after India's independence on August 15, 1947. The rulers of Indian princely states were required to accede to either of the two dominions created by the India Independence Act 1947. Jivajirao signed a covenant with the rulers of the adjoining princely states that united their several states form a new state within the union of India known as Madhya Bharat. This new covenanted state was to be governed by a council headed by a ruler to be known as the Rajpramukh. Madhya Bharat signed a fresh Instrument of Accession with the Indian dominion effective June 15, 1948. Jivajirao became the first rajpramukh, or appointed governor, of the state on 28 May 1948. He served as Rajpramukh until October 31, 1956, when the state was merged into Madhya Pradesh.

 

Heraldry

 

We may be sure that the royal emblem of the Sindhia dynasty has been a cobra of from ancient times. The cobra is an emblem connected with royalty and seems to have been introduced by the Egyptian pharao’s even in the 1st Dynasty (3050-2890 BC). As “It is always told of Mahadji Sindhia that in early youth a cobra was seen to protect the sleeping child from the sun’s rays by spreading its hood over him,” [2] This may be an indication that the House of Sindhia was of the opinion that it was fated to be the ruler of Gwalior. 

 

The cobra was introduced in Gwalior symbolism on the state flag and the royal flag as supporter of a sun in splendour.

 

Foto Esben Agersnap

Royal Flag of Gwalior preserved in the Jai Vilas palace.

 

These flags are supposed to be introduced about 1729 but are documented only in 1908. [3]  For that reason I think it more probable that the flags were introduced after the fall of the Mughal Empire when the sun in splendour was also adopted by some other former Mughal vassals.

 

Jayajirao Sindhia

1843-1886

Maharaja Sindhia of ....

 

Arms: Tenné, a cobra passant Or; on a chief Azure, a civic crown between two towers of the second.

Crest: On a helmet affrontée, lambrequined Tenné and Or, two globes Murrey each charged with a cobra sejant Or.

Supporters: Two wolves (Canis lupus - Canidæ)

Motto: ALI JAH (Of Exalted Rank).

(T. 36)

 

Madhavrao II Sindhia           

1886-1925

 

 

Arms: Tenné, a cobra passant Or; on a chief Azure, a civic crown between two towers of the second.

Crest: On a helmet affrontée, lambrequined Tenné and Or, a cobra sejant Or.

Supporters: Two wolves (Canis lupus - Canidæ)

Motto: ALI JAH (Of Exalted Rank).[4]

 

 

Quarter Anna coin, 1897 showing  the royal crest consisting of a spear and a trident in saltire charged with a cobra.

 

George Jiyajirao Sindia III   

1925-1948

 

 

Arms: The royal cypher M.J.S.

Crest: A sun radiant

Supporters: Two cobra’s

(Jaipur)

Flag

 

 

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© Hubert de Vries 2009-07-21 Updated 2010-01-16; 2015-11-12

 

 

 



[1]  Picture and quote from: Pereira, Harold B.: Indian Heraldry. In: The Coat of Arms.  N° 62 April 1965 pp. 240-243.

[2]  Gwalior State Gazetteer Vol. I. Calcutta Superintendent Government Printing. India 1908. The complete quote reads: It is always told of Mahadji Sindhia that in early youth a cobra was seen to protect the sleeping child from the sun’s rays by spreading its hood over him hence the introduction of this animal in the arms.The chief azure was given to Sindhia in 1869 on a banner then presented to him, the colour and civic crown being emblems of his fidelity to us (i.e. the English) in 1857, while the towers indicate the great fort, the “Gibraltar of India”. Wolves are or were very common round Gwalior.

[3]  Ibid.

[4] Blazoning as in the Gazetteer of 1908.