PUNJAB

 

 

 

Princely States

 

Bahawalpur

Bilaspur

Chamba

Faridkot

Jind

Kapurthala

Maler Kotla

Mandi

Nabha

Patiala

Sirmur

Suket

 

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Faridkot

 

Last Four Rulers of Faridkot [1]

 

Bikram Singh

1874 - 1898

Balbir Singh

1898 - 1906

Brij Indar Singh

1906 - 1918

Har Inder Singh

1918 - 1971

 

The ruling family of Faridkot claim descent from Jaisal, founder of the state of Jaisalmer in 1156 AD. The Lahoree Durbar seized the state in 1807. Intervention of the British authorities secured the restoration of Faridkot and all its dependencies to Sardar Gulab Singh in 1809. In 1947 Faridkot acceded to the Dominion of India. By amendment of the India Constitution Har Inder Singh was removed of his position as a ruler on 28 December 1971

 

.

Bikram Singh, Raja of ...

 

Arms: Azure, a chevron ermine between three annulets Argent.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Azure and Argent, a demi-lion proper.

Supporters: Two black buck (Antelope cervicapra - Bovidae) strewn with crescents.

Motto: BHALANACIRAPHARI

(T.35) [2]

 

 

National emblem of Faridkot State, 1947-1971.

(Jaipur) [3]

>

It shows the Khanda, the Sikh-emblem, charged with the Asoka Capital and motto, being the emblem of India.

 

Kapurthala

 

The ruling family belongs to the Rajput Sikhs and claims its descent from Rana Kapur, a distinguished member of the ruling house of Jaisalmer. The family is known as Ahluwalia, after the village Ahlu to which it originally belonged.

 

Jahatjit Singh Bahadur

1877-1949

Raja of ....

 

Arms: Azure, on a fesse Or a field-piece Gules, in chief a sun radiant between two stars, in base a trefoil of the second.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Azure and Or, a sword erect proper, hilted Or.

Supporters: An elephant on the dexter and a horse Sable on the sinister.

Motto: PRO REGE ET PATRIA (For King and Fatherland).

(Taylor, 53)

 

 

Photo NN

A more recent version shows the royal achievement surrounded by a royally crowned mantle. The sword-crest is placed per fesse above the crown.

 

The oldest crown is a European-style royal crown. Later this crown was replaced by a crown of Indian fashion.

 

Maler Kotla

 

The State was founded by an Afghan Saint, Sadruddin Khan. He was a powerful and influential chief of a Sherwani tribe of Afghans. He came to India before the middle of the 15th century, and settled down in the Punjab. He rebuilt the old town of Maler in 1442, after which the State was thus named. (J)

 

Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan

1871-1908

 

 

Nawab of....

 

Arms: Vert, five besants (i.e. roundles Or) in saltire.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Vert and Or, a mullet ermine.

Supporters: Two black buck (Antelope cervicapra - Bovidæ) ermine.

(Taylor, 56)

 

Muhammad Ahmad Ali Khan

1908-1949

 

Royal Achievement

 

 

Achievement of State

 

Arms: Tierced per fess, in chief a field-gun between six cannonballs; in fess a crescent-and-mullet between two stars; in base a shield and two swords in saltire.

Crest: On a helmet affrontée, a five-pointed star radiant.

Motto: HEAVEN’S LIGHT OUR GUIDE

Mantle: A crowned mantle, fringed and tasseled.

(Jaipur)

 

Nabha

 

The state was founded in 1760 by Choudhry Hamir Singh, grandson of Choudry Trilok Singh. The latter was the elder son of Choudry Phul, resident of the village of Mehraj in the district of Ferozepur. Choudry Phul, in fact, was the founder of the Phulkian States comprising present Patiala, Jind and Nabha.

In 1784, Jaswant Singh, son of Hamir Singh ascended the Gaddi and assumed the title of Raja. He signed a treaty of friendship with the British in 1809.

 

Hira Singh

Ripudaman Singh

Pratab Singh

1871-1911

1911-1928

1928-1971

 

 

Raja of...

 

Arms: Ermine, a saltire Purpure between four targets Sable, bossed Or.

Crest: On a helmet to the dexter, lambrequined Purpure and Argent, a nude dexter arm embowed, holding a bow-and-arrow proper.

Supporters: A leopard (Panthera pardus - Felidæ) and a bay horse.

Motto: phulasyaiva phalamiddam (This is the fruit of the flower).

                        (Taylor, 59).

 

Patiala

 

The Patiala Chief has always been recognised as the head of the Phul-dynasty, deriving its name from Chaudhri Phul, the common ancestor of the rulers of the Phulkian State, viz. Patiala, Jind and Nabha.

Baba Ala Singh, a grandson of Chaudhri Phul, had founded the State in the early 18th century. The territory was largely extended by his son Amar Singh and afterwards by his grandson, Maharaja Sahib Singh.

 

But the mutiny swept away the last relics of the Delhi Empire, and with them the East India Company’s rule, and the princes of India found themselves brought face to face with their sovereign, Queen Victoria. The maharaja of Patiala then sought for the recognition of himself and his house as an Indian noble of the British empire. Above all rewards for his great services to the empire in those days, he asked for perpetuity for his house and honours, and Sir John Lawrence, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, worked out the chief’s idea into a recognition of the right of adoption on the failure of natural heirs; and after a reference to Her Majesty’s Government, the following sunnud or patent of nobility, of 11th March 1862, was framed:

 

- ‘Her Majesty being desirous that the governments of the several princes and chiefs of India, who now govern their own territories, should be perpetuated, and that the representation and dignity of their houses should be continued: In fulfillment of this desire, this sunnud is given to you, to convey to you the assurance that, on failure of natural heirs, the British Government will recognise and confirm any adoption of a successor made by yourself, or by any future chief of your state, that may be in accordance with Hindu law, and customs of your race. Be assured that nothing shall disturb the engagement thus made to you, so long as your house is loyal to the crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants, or engagements which record its obligations to the British Government.

(Sd.) Canning.’


Rajinder Singh

Bhupinder Singh

1871-1900

1900-1938

 

 

Maharaja of ...

 

Arms: Ermine, a target Sable, bossed Or, in chief two daggers in saltire Gules, hilted Or, in base a sword also Gules and Or, and a rifle proper, in saltire.

Crest: On a helmet affrontée an elephant passant.

Supporters: A lion and a bay horse, each ensigned with an annulet Argent.

Motto: PHOOLARKA KIRANA PRABHA in Gurbani script.

(Taylor 71)

 

Yadavindra Singh

1938-1971

 

 

Royal Achievement

 

A modern version of the achievement shows the shield Azure, the lion and the horse exchanged, the lion guardant and crowned. The motto is replaced by HEAVENS LIGHT OUR GUIDE, which is the motto of the Order of the Star of India.

 

In another variant the achievement is placed on a crowned royal mantle and the motto, written in Gurbani script, is changed:

 

 

(Tera Garh Mera Garh) which would mean ‘Your House is My Home’.

This is a corruption of:

 

(Tera Garh Mera Asay) which means ‘Your House is My Refuge’.

­

The motto Tera Ghar Mera Asay comes from the famous hukamnama or written order addressed to the two sons of Phul, Rama and Tilokha by the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh. Rama Singh and Tilokha Singh were devoted disciples of the Guru and on August 2nd, 1696 the Guru called upon them for aid in the way of a detachment of cavalry in his battle against the Hill Rajas. It was the great tenth Guru’s hukamnama that bestowed special status on the house of Patiala. The letter reads:

 

There is one God. The Guru is great. It is the order of the Guru. Bhai Rama and Bhai Tilokha, the Guru will protect all. You are required to come with your contingent. I am much pleased with you. Your house is my refuge. On seeing this letter you should come in my presence. Your house is my refuge. You should come to me immediately. On seeing this letter you should arrive with horsemen. Do come. I have sent one robe of honour. Keep it with you. [4]

 

The motto was also used for the Nishan-i-Phul, an order of chivalry founded by Bhupinder Singh.

 

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© Hubert de Vries 2009-11-19

 



[1] Royal Ark. Faridkot

[2] T =  Taylor, Robert M.A. Cantab Bengal Civil Service: The Princely Armory. Being a display of the arms of the ruling chiefs of India prepared for the Imperial Assembly held at Delhi on the 1st day of January 1877. Printed for the Government of India at the Government Central Printing Office, 8 Hastings Street, Calcutta 1902.

[3] Jaipur, H.H. the Maharadja of: A History of the Indian State Forces. Orient Longmans. Bombay/Cal­cutta/Madras/New Delhi, 1967.

[4]  Singh, Davinder: Hidden Heritage. The remarkable Nishan i Phul. 2006.