Cilicië                                                                                                                                              Cilicia



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Under the rule of the Seljuks, a large number of the Armenian principalities disappeared, but south of the Taurus Mountains, a certain Rupen, a monarch from Little Armenia (in the northeast of present-day Turkey), was able to withdraw from their rule. He was the founder of the Rupenid dynasty which remained in power in Cilicia or New Armenia until 1226 and was succeeded by kings from the Hethumidian House and later by kings from the House of Lusignan from France.


During the Crusades, the princes of Lampron in Cilicia came into close contact with the West. At the end of the twelfth century, Prince Leo II succeeded in having himself recognized by the emperor and pope as king of Armenia. On 6 January 1199, he was crowned in Tarsus by the Papal Nuncio Conrad of Wittelsbach and the Imperial Chancellor Conrad of Hildesheim. He and his successors therefore called themselves “King of the Armenians,” and this may refer to the population of Cilicia in particular as well as to the Armenian population of Asia Minor in general. Thus, in their titles, they clearly positioned themselves as rivals of the sultans of Rum for rule over the Armenians, but it should be noted that the area actually under their control included only Cilicia while the rest of Armenia was under the rule of the Rum Seljuks (Ikonion) remained.

Immediately after his coronation, coins struck under his reign show a lion passant with a patriarchal cross. The lion is probably not a reference to its name. In common symbolism, the combination represents a subordinate commander (the lion) under Byzantine or Nicene suzerainty (the patriarchal cross). On the contrary, the name Leo is rather a reference to the rank occupied by the monarch.


During the entire period of the kingdom (1199-1375) the Armenian coins continued to show a lion passant with a cross staff. Initially together with a patriarchal or double cross, later with a cross moline

The lion was also heraldized, at least in Western sources. In the  Wijnbergen Roll two mentions of a coat of arms for the king of Armenia occur. The first is, for “le.Roi.dermine”: Red, a walking, a crowned golden lion gardant with a patriarchal cross on its back. [1]] This coat of arms with the lion with the patriarchal cross is probably an early Western heraldic construction.

The lion with the common cross appears to have had other colors. Gelre shows a red lion passant with a cross staff on a golden field. On the shield a helmet with the same but now crowned lion for crest and helmets in the colors of the Armenian flag [2]). The reversal of colors may certainly be related to the reorientation of the Armenian Church to Rome at the Council of Sis (1307-08). There the Armenian Church was united with the Church of Rome. From this time on, the cross that the lion carries on coins is also a latin cross. [3]) )

The coat of arms with the lion with the cross appears one more time after the conquest of Armenia by Timur Lenk in 1387. It is in the Report of the Council of Contstanz by Ulrich Richental (1417 ca), the lion crowned, the cross in the shield head instead of on a cross staff. The caption reads: Rex hermenie ist vnder dem Kaiser kan (The king of Armenia is under the Khan, namely the son of Timur, Shahrukh (1405-1447) [4]) 


Another coat of arms for “le.Roy dermenie” appears in Wijnbergen Roll. It is: Gold, a red lion rampant gardant


While the Seljuk sultan, originally from Turkey, ruled the Armenian Christian population of Romania - the Rupenids were of Armenian origin, so Cilicia can be considered a truly Armenian state.

Because of the close relations with the West, among other things because Leo I (II) [5]] was crowned king by the Papal Nuncio and the Reich Chancellor in 1199, the Cilician kings are also more prominent in Western heraldry than the sultans of Rum The spire is bitten off by the Cilician coins from the time of the kingdom, with  on the reverse side a lion passant, usually with a patriarchal cross over the shoulder, but sometimes also with a staff with a cross moline. [6]]]  That's why the second coat of arms is undoubtedly that of Leo II (1270-‘89). Several portraits are known of him, but for us his portrait as a prince from 1256 is the most interesting. In that year Hethum I (1226-‘69) made a trip to Karakorum to submit to the Mongol Khan Möngke there. Its purpose was to be safeguarded from the war that Hülegü, a grandson of Djengiz Khan, then undertook to subdue Persia and Iraq. The portrait of Prince Leo II must be seen in the light of Mongol suzerainty. It represents him dressed in a long blue robe (divetesion) studded with medallions in which a golden lion passant to the sinister above which is a moon with a golden sickle and an orange-red shadow side. Above his head, two angels hold up a red sun with a golden corona and a moon similar to that above the lions on long rods. The sun and the moon are undoubtedly the symbols of the Mongol Khans described by Marco Polo: “.... Above his head his banner with the symbol of the sun and the moon flew so high that he could be seen from all sides. used to be." [7]]

The lion, as we have seen, was the symbol of a very high Mongol commander, and so it is likely that Leo II, if he were allowed to use a lion, was given an appointment as commander of all of Möngke's Armenians, an appointment already must have been as unrealistic as the appointment of Leo I as king of all Armenians. It should also be taken into account that the 'lion' on Leo II's robe can also represent a leopard or tiger, and then we are in somewhat lower ranks of the Mongol war hierarchy. The 'leopardized' lion in the second coat of arms in the Weapon Roll Wijnbergen would then be a Western translation of a Mongolian war symbol, probably based on oral tradition.



Hülegü's conquest was relatively short-lived, and after his departure in 1258, the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, Baibars, took advantage of his absence to subjugate the Christian states of the Near East. Antioch fell in 1268 and Hethum I could only make peace by meeting high standards. In 1269 he retired to a monastery and was succeeded by Leo II.

A coat of arms with a white lion on a blue field occurs in the period of a 10-year truce between the Sultan of Egypt and Hethum II from 1281 to 1291. So this lion will certainly not represent such an important position in the war hierarchy as the lions of Kaikosrau II and Leo II, but rather the position of dux of comes, as in the West. In that respect, Hethum II's position in the Near East was no more different from the earlier princes of Antioch, the king of Cyprus, the emir of Alexandria and the sharif of Mecca, all of whom also used a lion as military insignia. After the hostilities were resumed in 1292 with varying results, the coat of arms with the red lion also appears on the golden field. Until the 20th century it was regarded as the coat of arms of 'Armenia', whereby it is not stated which Armenia is intended.




After the territorial reform of Diocletian the provinces of Cilicia I and II (Diocese Oriens). The insignia of the highest administrative officials in this area are a folio inscribed Florea Inter alelectos ordinis primi  (That you may floewer between the elected authorities of the firs rank) and a scroll (not depicted in the Notitia)


In the Byzantine theme the governors of Cilicia bore the title of sebastos.


In the 12-13th century the achievement was a patriachal cross supported by two lions reversed reguardant



The royal arms a lion passsant bearing a patriarchal cross






Seneqerim Hovhannes








Gagik of Kars






Osin Rupen

Lord of Lampron 1080-1095


Constantine I



Thoros (Theodorus) I



Leo I



Direct Byzantine Rule



Thoros II






Rupen II



Leo (II) I the Great


King  06.01.1199-1219


Leo II had been an ally of Frederick Barbarossa and was made to be recognized as king by Henry VI and Pope Celestinus III. On 6 January 1199, he was crowned in Saint Sofia in Tarsus by Cardinal Conrad of Wittelsbach, Archbishop of Mainz. It is not clear whether this meant that he became king of New or Lesser Armenia, which consisted of Cilicia and its environs, or whether the title covered more and also related to the part of Armenia occupied by the Seljuks. The title was in any case: King of the Armenians, and therefore has a national and no territorial significance

Golden Bull. 1207


Seal of Majesty: Leo I on his throne, crowned and with globe and fleur de lis

L.: X LE/ON TCAG/AWOR HAYOC (Leo, King of Armenians).

Rev.: The armenian crowned lion wig cross in his right paw.

L.: X LEON I KC(RIST)E AY TCAGAWOR HAYOC (Leo by Chris and God king of the Armenians .

 (ASVat A.A.Arm. I-XVIII, 629; Sigilla n  214, afb. p. 215). 


The cross 



Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. Ku.-Tank, Sis; 7.44 g.  Crowned lion’s head  // patriarchal cross between two stars



Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. Ku.-Tank, Sis; 7.44 g.  Crowned lion’s head  // patriarchal cross between two stars


Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. Ku.-Tank, Sis; 7.44 g.  Crowned lion’s head  // patriarchal cross between two stars



The arms



Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. A Double tram; 5.56 g. Seated king with globe and fleur de lis // crowned lion passant gardant with patriarchal cross



Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. A Double tram; 5.56 g. Seated king with globe and fleur de lis // crowned lion with        patriarchal cross


The achievement [9]


The Achievement as on coins of  Leo the Great (1199-1219)



Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. AV-Tram; 2.82 g. King kneels before Christ, between birds within halo // Patriarchal cross between two lions rampant regardant



Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. AV-Tram; 2.94 g. King seated on throne with cross and fleur de lis // Patriarchal cross between two lions  rampant regardant.




Levon II. (I.), 1187-1199-1219. AV-Tram; 2.99 g. King seated on throne with patriarchal cross and fleur de lis // Patriarchal cross between two lions  rampant regardant.



Le Roi dorient: de Gueules, a patrirarchal cross Or

                                                                             Wijnbergen Roll n°1309 (1269 ca)



Constantine Lampron

Philip of Antiochia

Constantine Lampron

Hethum I (so of Constantine)

*1212 ca- † 23.01.1252

regent 1219-1223

1 ¥ 1223-1224


2 ¥ 1226-1252


At the age of 14 Isabella was forced into marriage with Constantine of Barbaron’s son who was subsequently crowned King Hetum I in Tarsus in June 1226.  She is said to have refused to consummate the marriage for several years.

In the year 1226, the Armenian princes, together with the Catholicos, Lord Constantine, assembled and enthroned Hethum, son of Constantine, bailli of the Armenians, and also gave him, as a wife. Isabel, King Leo’s daughter. Thereafter there was peace in the House of the Armenians, and year by year they strived for the heights.


Constantine of Barbaron now thought it wise to reconcile Armenia with the Papacy: loyal messengers were sent in the name of the young couple to the Pope and to the Emperor Frederick II. Although Bohemond IV and later his son, Bohemond V attempted to persuade the Pope to arrange a divorce between Isabella and Hethum, but both he and King Henry I of Cyprus were specifically forbidden by Rome to attack the Armenians. The marriage was legalized by Rome in 1237.


On coins a lion with a latin cross


KOSTANDIN, son of HETHUM [III] Lord of Lampron & his second wife -([1180] - executed 29 Jun 1250).

The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "Constantin, fils de Héthoum, seigneur de Lampron", when recording that he was captured by Sultan Kaykaous at the fortress of Gaban on 26 Jan 1216/24 Jan 1217

The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Sultan Kakauz" besieged "Kapan fortress" from 27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217 and captured "the prince of the Armenians, Kostandin the Constable”, the senior paron and Kostandin, son of the lord of Lambron, and Kyr Sahak lord of Maghvay, and others", and that on 26 Jan 1218/25 Jan 1219 "king Lewon gave the sultan the fortresses of Loulon and Lauzada as the prince for freeing his imprisoned princes". He succeeded as Lord of Lampron 1220-1249. He was regent of Armenia during the minority of Queen Zabel. He was executed, with his son, for his rebellion against Hethum I King of Armenia and his collusion with the Seljuk Sultan of Rum.

Married (1220) STEPHANIE, daughter of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron [Hethum] ([1200/05]-before 1274). She is named Stephanie (deceased) in the Tetraevangelium of her son Oshin, dated to 1274. Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Sempad which names "…Oshin son of the sister of King Hethum I…" among those sent to Egypt as hostages in 1268[1120].

Lord Kostandin & his wife had five children:


Hethum I



Hethum I (1213 – 21 October 1270) ( from Armenian: Հեթում Ա) ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as "Little Armenia") from 1226 to 1270. He was the son of Constantine, Lord of Baberon (d. 1263) and Princess Alix Pahlavouni of Lampron (a third-cousin of Leo I) and was the founder of the dynasty which bears his name: the Hetoumids. Due to diplomatic relations with the Mongol Empire, Hethum himself traveled to the Mongol court in Karakorum, Mongolia,  which was recorded in the famous account The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back by Hetoum's companion, the Armenian historian Kirakos Gandzaketsi.


Persuaded of the futility of resistance, he decided to submit to the Mongols and went to Kara-korum to pay homage to Mangu Khan (1251-’59)


Hetoum I., 1226-1271. AV-Tram; 2.99 g. Rider and latin cross // four lines arab script


Hetoum I., 1226-1271. AV-Tram; 2.93 g. Crowned lion passant gardant latin ross on his back // King and Queen with cross staff

Hetoum I., 1226-1271. AV-Tram; 2.93 g. Crowned lion passant gardant latin ross on his back a cross staff // King and Queen with cross staff.

Hetoum I., 1226-1271. AV-Tram; 1.40 g. Crowned lion passant gardant latin ross on his back // King and Queen with cross staff


On his coins the cross of the armenian patriarchate


Hetoum I., 1226-1271. Ku.-Tank, Sis; 7.51 g. Seated king with fler de lis and globe//Square cross bottony between four stars

Hetoum I., 1226-1271. Ku.-Tank, Sis; 7.29 g. Seated king with fler de lis and globe a cross staff // Square cross bottony between four stars

Hetoum I., 1226-1271. Ku.-Kardez, Sis; 5.72 g. Rider with sceptre // Square cross bottony between four stars



Hetoum I., 1226-1271. Ku.-Kardez, Sis; 4.96 g. Seated king // square cross bottony between four stars


Mongol invasion 1231-1235


Persuaded of the futility of resistance, Hethum decided to submit to the Mongols and went to Kara-korum to pay homage to Mangu Khan (1251-’59)

Portrait of the royal family

Gospels of Gagik of Kars. Jeruzalm Armenian Patrachate n ° 2556


The dress of the king decorated with unicorns gardant within medallions on the dress of the qeen cocks. On the seat elephants


Unicorn / ibex emblem of high ranking courtier and supreme commander


The piece is usually dated in the time of Gagik of Kars  (1042=1045) The date is not free from doubt because the large medallions on the royal dress are more from the first half of the 13th century rather than from the eleventh.


The person represented on the leaf would then be: Constantine  (Regent 1224-1226); Hethum I (his son); and Queen Isabella.

In that case the unicorn should be the badge of rank of a (supreme-) commander


In 1256 Hülegü. a grandson of Djengiz Khan. conquered Persia and Iraq.


From the same year is a portrait of the son of Hethum I, Leo II

Prince Leo II  (1256)

dressed in a red chlamys and a blue divetesion decorated with large medallions with golden lions surmounted by a moon on a blue field. and. a red sun and golden crescent which should be the state emblems of the Mongols of Hülegü

A few years before 1256 Hethum I had done homage to Mangku Khan and in the year of the creation of the image, Hülegü conquered Persia and Iraq. Mongol suzerainty would explain why the angels hold a red sun and a white moon above Leo’s head. The residence of the katholikos of Armenia, Kostandin I (1221-1267), was then still in Hromklay.


However, after the departure of the Mongols of Hülegu Khan in 1258, the Mamluks again pushed forward in 1268, subdued Antioch and forced Hethum into a severe peace treaty.

Hethum I abdicated in 1269 and died a monk in 1270.


The arms of Armenia in the Wijnbergen Roll date from the period between the departure of the Mongols and the arrival of the Mamluks:

1269 ca Wijnbergen n ° 1301 le.Roi.dermine: Gules, a crowned lion passant gardant with a patriarchal cross on his back.

1269 ca Wijnbergen n ° 1269: le.Roy dermenie: Or, a lion rampant gardant


It is obvious to accept that these arms are  of Hethum I and Leo III.


[1269 ca Wijnbergen n ° 1293: le Roi de tarse: white, a red jumping rabbit. (?) Possibly: Hülegü]




Levon II., 1270-1289. AV-Tram, Sis; 2.55 g. Rider with patriarchal crossr. Rev. :Crowned lion passant gardant with patriarchal cross


 [Compare Kaikosrau II of Ikonion (1237-1245) Mongol protectorate (1243-1330) coins with a lion with sun and stars]




Leo II


Son of Hethum I and Isabella


Gospels of Queen Keran, 1272


1272 King Leo II and his family. On the right is Queen Keran. Between them on the left Hethum (II) Toros and Smpad. The oldest girl on the right is possibly Isabella who married Amalrik of Lusignan in 1292 and became the ancestor of the Lusignans in Armenia. The king in divetesion and chlamys are both red. On his head a plate crown, comparable to a crown of a sebastokrator, i.e. a low diadem with a large red stone in the middle.

Jerusalem, Armenian Patriarchat, n° 2563, fol. 380 °



1273 Walfords Roll (C 14): „Le roy d'Ermeny, d'or un leon rampant gulez un border gulez indentee” (The king of Armenia , Or, a lion rampant  and a border indented Gules


On coins the armenian lion with a patriarchal cross (Pl. XXXI)


1280 Camden Roll: „Le rey de Ermenie, l'escu de ermine a un croiz de goules od une corone d'or”. The King of Armenia a shield ermine a cross Gules charged with a golden crown.


In February 1278 there were messengers from the King of Armenia at the court of Naples (Arch. Stor. It. Vol. 1 pp. 2-4). On 1 April Charles sends one of his counselors, Nicholas of St. Andemaire, to the King of Armenia (l.c. p. 225). He is supposed to first bring his sister to the Prince of Tripoli. A messenger from the latter had stayed with Charles in February. (l.c. p. 6). Also in April 1279 an envoy from the prince stayed with Charles (l.c. vol. 2 p. 199) and towards the end of the year a new one came who returned home in January 1280 (l.c. vol. 3, p. 5). (W. Norden in "Das Papsttum und Byzanz in note 1 op p. 629).


It is quite possible that an alliance with Charles of Anjou, who had also been King of Jerusalem since 1277, included the use of a coat of arms with a cross. G.J. Brault believes in Early Blazon on pp. 35-37 (The arms of Brittanny) that the arms with the cross are talking arms because of the similarity between "Ermeny" and "Ermine" and also notes that these arms are attributed in the literature to Tristan, whose empire was also called Ermenie. However, the one does not necessarily exclude the other.


Truce with the Mamluks 1281-1291


Finally, there is an exceptional coat of arms to mention that appears in the Gelre Herald Roll of Arms. In it, under the title 'die coninc vā aarmenyen', there is a coat of arms with a red lion passant with a cross staff on a golden field. The shield is covered with a helmet with the lion of the coat of arms as a crest. [10]] The lambrequines, with the Jerusalem coat of arms, suggest that this is the coat of arms of Peter of Lusignan who was king of Armenia from 1368 until he was murdered in Nicosia in January 1369. He was the only Armenian king who was also (titular) king of Jerusalem. [11]] This coat of arms thus takes up the tradition of the coat of arms of Leo I and is most likely also based on the imagery of Cilician coins. [12]] ] In a manuscript from 1256, Leo II is depicted with on his divetesion medallions with golden lions, above which is a sun on a blue field. This can be explained by assuming that under the Mongol suzerainty of Mangu Khan, Leo II also bore the rank insignia of a Mongol monarch. According to Marco Polo, for a commander of 100,000 men, these were a lion with a sun and a moon. [13]) Khaikosrau II of Ikonion, who was under Mongol protection, also used this distinguishing mark on his coins. In heraldic form, this lion is in the Segar's Roll in which a white (!) Lion on a blue field is given for the coat of arms of the king of Armenia. In this case, the blue could be a symbol of the fact that Armenia in fact no longer belonged to the Roman Empire, in this case it was outside the sphere of influence of Byzantium. Two other coats of arms are given in other rolls of arms, namely gold, a lion rampant gardant and gold, a red lion within a red border indented. [14]] For this, the sons of Leo II in the life of their father are proposed. The red lion on gold later appears continuously on the flag and in the coat of arms for Armenia. It can be found on 14th century maps. After 1393 he stands, now crowned, in the arms of the Kings of Cyprus, titular kings of Armenia.


1282 Segars Roll (G140): Rey de Ermenye: Azure a lion rampant argent. [15]


It is inexplicable whether the change in color must reflect Leo II's tribute to the Sultan of Egypt, Qala'un by the treaty of 1281. This tribute may have lasted until 1320 when Oshin of Gorigos defeated the Mamluks at Ayas.

This idea is further supported by the fact that it can be deduced from the Vineyard Roll of Arms that the color of the Islamic monarchs in the area south of the Mediterranean was blue.


An example of a silver coin of Alaiye showing the hexagram al as a symbol the armed forces.


This coin has been struck in the name of the mamluk sultan Al-ashraf sayf al-din Barsbay (825-841AH (1260-’77)). weight, g: 0.7 / size, mm: 16.7 / mint: Alaiye (modern Alanya/Antalya).

The hexagram being the symbol of armed authority


Hethum II



Textbook of King Hethum II of 1286

Jerevan, Matenadaran, n° 979, fol. 295.


Detail of te frontispiece with a clipeus of Hethum, supported by four  lions, . In chief a square multixoloured double  cross


On coins a cross (Pl. XXXVI)





1293 Movement of the Armenian Patriachate from Hromklay to Sis.


Hethum II

2nd term 1295-1296

On coins a cross (PL. XXXVI)


On coins a cross (PL. XXXVI-XXXVII) And the achivement (n°s  1655 - 1674).




Brother of  van Hethum II

The achievemnt accurs again on coins of Smpad


Constantine I


On coins a cross (n°s 1725-1730)


Hethum II

3rd term 1299-1301




Mameluk invasion 1307


Onder Leo III vond het concilie van Sis plaats (1307-’08) waarbij de Armeense kerk werd verenigd met de kerk van Rome. Vanaf deze tijd is het kruis dat de leeuw draagt enkelvoudig.  The cross of the catho;ocate is from this time a red square cross betheen fou crosslets


On coins a lion passant with a latin cross (n°s 1734-1806).




Brother of Hethum II


Oshin defeated the Mameluks at  the Battle of Ayas in 1320.

On his death on 20 July 1320, Oshin was succeeded by his minor son Leo IV (sometimes referred to as Leo V). It was popularly believed that Oshin was poisoned by his cousin (and brother-in-law) Oshin of Corycos.

The achievementoccors again on coins of Oshin


Leo IV

Oshin, count of Corykos


Regent 1320-1329


Cilicia on the map of Angelino Dulcerta 1339

The flags of Iknonion (cunnyo), (pales indented) Corykos, (crosses); Tarsus (lion) and in the dexter upper corner of the Catholicate (cross)


1339 Angelino Dulcerta: Banner: Yellow, a red lion rampant.

Corincho: [...] the king of this land has a black flag with five white crosses (Libro de Conoscimiento p. 20). 

Banner of the Armenian Catholicate

on the map of Angelino Dulcerta 1339, with the the caption sauasto (Sis)


Banner: White, a red square cross between four smaller square crosses


House of Lusignan


Jean de  Lusignan

Regent 1341-1342


Guy de Lusignan



So of Amaury de Lusignan and Isabella of Armenië, dau. of. Leo II


Constantine II

Elected 1344-1363





Leo V, the Pretender, Lusignan

*1342- † Paris, 1393



Constantine III Neghir


son of Hethum II

Op munten een gaande leeuw waarboven een spitsvoetig (voordrachts-?) kruis (n°s 2175-2235)


Peter I Lusignan


King of Cyprus, titulairy king of Jeruzalem 1358-1369

King of Armenia 1368-1369

Count of Tripoli 1347-1358


On coins a lio passant and a procession cross (n°s 2130-2168).



1365 ca. Gelre fol 70 n°  750: Or. a lion passant Gules langued Azure in his dexter a a staff crested with  a latin cross moline

Crest: On a helmet lambrequined of the arms of Jeruzalem the lion from the arms crowned


[coninc va emeinen d’or au lion pass. de gu., lamp. d’az. tenant un bâton d’arg. sommé d’une croix enhendée de gu., C.: le lion des armes couronné d’or, cap. d’arg., cour. d’az.. L.: die conic vā ermeinen Bergshammer n° 3382.


d’or au lion de gu. (courtoisie). L.: ormemen. Bergshammer n° 23.fol  4v]



This annotation has to date from after 1368 when Hugues became King of Armenia, as the last part describes the arms of that kingdom.


Constantine III Neghir



Leo V (VI) Lusignan       

1342- † Paris, 29.11.1393


A cross on coins (n°s 2237-2245).


1374 Banner: Yellow. a red lion rampant. (Catalaanse Atlas, B.N. Paris).


Het graf van Leo V bevindt zich in Lyon.


Titulary Kings of Armenia, Kings of Cyprus.

After the conquest of Cilicia by the Mamluks in 1375, only Korikos remained of the kingdom of Cilicia. This was lost to the emir of Karaman by treason in 1448 under John II of Cyprus. From this time on, the flag with the white crosses on the black field has disappeared. (Lusignan - Cyprus)


Leo V (VI)









sceaux; collection Bourgogne




Moulage du sceau de Léon VI, roi d'Arménie. Légende fruste en latin.


1384-10-31 (2Î)


plâtre pris sur cire originale


rond, diamètre 33 mm


Tomb of Leo V in the Couvent de Celestins, Paris


Photo H.d,Vl 03.05, 2014

Tomb of Leo V in the Basilica of St Denis, Paris, now


INscribed: Cy gist tres noble et excellent prince Leon de Lizingnen quint roy latin du royaume d'Armenie qui rendit l'ame a Dieu a Paris le XXIXe jour de novembre l'an de grace M.CCC.IIIIXX.XIII.
Priez pour luy.



Conrad Grüneberg 1483


In the head of this article the arms of the Rey de ermenia from the Livro de Armeia Mor, Portugal 1505.






House of  Rupen                                               Leo I                 Constantine Lampron

                                                                           1199-1219                   Regent 1219-‘26

                                          1                                      2

   Philip of  Antiochia     ¥            Isabella             ¥        Hethum I

            1223-1224            1223         1219-1252            1226      1226-1270


House of  Hethum                                                   Leo II




Amaury of. Lusignan ¥ Isabella   Hethum II      Toros           Smpad      Constantine I     Oshin

                                  1292               1289-1293    1293-1295     1296-1298       1298-1299    1308-1320


                                                                   Leo III



                                                                                                                                       Leo IV



         John                                 (Guy) Constantine II                               House of  Lusignan

Regent 1341-‘42                                1342-1344


                                               Constantine III Neghir



                                                        Leo V



                                                  Constantine IV



                                               Peter of Lusignan



                                                 Constantine IV



                                                        Leo V



After 1. Encyclopaedia Italiana: Armenia. 2. Sturdza, Mi­hail Du­mi­tru: Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople


Eyalet Adana and surroundings



Arms 17th c entury


The Eyalet of Adana (ایالت ادنه; Eyālet-i Adana‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1608, when it was separated from the Eyalet of Aleppo

The Ramadanids played a key role in 15th-century Ottoman-Mamluk relations, being a buffer state located in the Mamluk al-'Awasim frontier zone. In 1517, Selim I incorporated the beylik into the Ottoman Empire after his conquest of the Mamluk state. The beys of Ramadanids held the administration of the Ottoman sanjak of Adana in a hereditary manner until 1608.


Dulkadir Eyalet (ایالت ذو القادریه / دولقادر; Eyālet-i Ẕū l-Ḳādirīye / Ḍūlḳādir‎) or Marash Eyalet ( Maraş Eyaleti) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.

The Dulkadirids were the last of the Anatolian emirates to yield to the Ottomans, managing to remain independent until 1521, and were not fully incorporated into the empire until 1530. The eyalet was established in 1522. After its disestablishment in 1864, its territories were united with Aleppo and Diyarbekir eyalets.




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 © Hubert de Vries 2021-02-04




[1] Wijnbergen n°s 1301en 1269. Adam-Even, Paul & Léon Jéquier: Un Armorial français du XIIIe siècle, l'armorial Wijnbergen. In: Archives Heraldiques Suisses. 1951 pp. 49-62, pp. 101-110; 1952 pp. 28-36, 64-68, 103-111; 1953 pp. 55-77.

[2] Gelre fol. 70, n° 750. De helmkleden zijn wit met een geel krukkenkruis tussen vier kruisjes (Jeruzalem). De vlag van Armenië was wit met een rood krukkenkruis tussen vier kruisjes. Het is aannemelijk dat Gelre zich hier, bij uitzondering, vergist heeft, want de koningen van  Armenië waren nooit ook (titulair-) koningen van Jeruzalem.

[3] De kleuren kunnen nog een keer anders zijn geweest. Van 1281 tot 1291 was de Koning van Armenië tribuutplichtig aan Al-Mansur Qalaun van Egypte. Volgens westerse bronnen voerde deze een zilveren leeuw op zwart. Een niet geheel onverdachte, want zeer late, bron (Ducange, Car. Du Fresne: Historia Byzantina, Paris 1680) geeft: Le Roy d’Orient, de sable à un lieppart d’argent en bande couronné & navré en l’espaule d’or, issant de la bouche une croix de Patriarche de gueulles. Zo zou het wapen van de Koning van Armenië als vazal van Qalaun er uit hebben kunnen zien.

[4] U. Richental fol. 135b. Het is niet duidelijk wie met deze koning is bedoeld. Het wapen met het kruisje in het schildhoofd later ook bij Conrad Grüneberg (1483) en Hennegies 1598, p. 187

[5] De tweede vorst van Cilicië van die naam maar de eerste koning. Hier wordt de koningsnummering aangehouden

[6] Bedoukian, Paul Z.: Coinage of Cilician Armenia. The American Numismatic Society. New York, 1962. Vermoedelijk heeft deze afwisseling te maken met de mate waarin de Armeense kerk zich onafhankelijk van Rome kon of wilde opstellen. Telkens is door Rome geprobeerd om de Armeense kerk aan zich ondergeschikt te maken en dit was ook één van de voorwaarden waaraan voor de kroning van Leo I moest worden voldaan, een voorwaarde overigens waaraan door Leo I, eenmaal koning, met goede redenen maar halfhartig uitvoering werd gegeven. Uiteindelijk kwam het in 1307 bij de synode van Sis tot een vereniging van de Armeense kerk met Rome maar deze leidde vrijwel onmiddellijk tot een scheuring onder de Armeense clerus. Het patriarchale dubbelkruis zou dan de suprematie van de koning in rijks- en geloofszaken moeten voorstellen terwijl, wanneer de kerkelijke suprematie als berustend bij Rome werd beschouwd, de staf met het griekse kruis die de leeuw soms vasthoudt, betrekking heeft op de opperheerschappij van de koning in regeringszaken alleen.

[7] Het gaat hier om de vlag van Qubilai Khan (1260 / 1279-‘94) Marco Polo, Travels ed. Penquin Classics p. 116. Deze zon-en-maan kwamen dus ook voor op de plaquettes van de Mongoolse bevelhebbers.

[8] In de westerse heraldiek van die tijd sprak men al van een „liepard” als men een aanziende leeuw bedoelde. Nergens blijkt echter uit dat deze „liepard” lager werd geklasseerd als een leeuw.

[9] From: Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 137, 4018  /

[10] Wapenrol Gelre fol. 70, n° 750: W.: Goud, een rode gaande leeuw met blauwe tong en klauwen, in zijn rechtervoorklauw een rood breedarmig kruis op een staak. C.: De gezeten gekroonde leeuw met kruis uit het wapen. K.: Blauw met drie fleurons. H.: Wit, een gouden krukkenkruis tussen vier kruisjes (Jeruzalem). Overgenomen in de wapenrol  Bellenville n° 3382: d’or au lion pass. de gu., lamp. d’az. tenant un bâton d’arg. sommé d’une croix enhendée de gu., C.: le lion des armes couronné d’or, cap. d’arg., cour. d’az.. L.: die conic vā ermeinen.  Ook Bellenville n° 23: W.: d’or au lion de gu. (courtoisie). L.: ormemen.

[11] Latere koningen van Cyprus en Jeruzalem waren steeds slechts titulai

r koning van Armenië. Voor deze titel voerden zij het wapen met een rode leeuw op een gouden veld.

[12] De leeuw heeft vanaf de regering van Leo III (1303-’07) altijd een staf met een grieks kruisje over de schouder.

[13] Marco Polo, The Travels. Penguin ed. p. 121.

[14] Segar’s Roll in Brault Early Blazon, p. 37 n° 2. Walford’s Roll n° C 14; Wijnbergen n° 1269.

[15] Brault, Early Blason p.37, n° 2