Deutschland

Sovereigns

The Arms of State

The Symbol of Germany

 

 

Länder

 

Berlin

Baden-Württemberg

Bayern

Brandenburg

Bremen

Hamburg

Hessen

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Niedersachsen

Nordrhein-Westfalen

Rheinland-Pfalz

Sachsen

Sachsen-Anhalt

Schleswig-Holstein

Thüringen

 

 

Deutsche Demokratische Republik

 

Essays

 

 

The Crown of Charlemagne

SYMBOL OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY

The crown, made at the beginning of the 11th century, was only used for short periods and was several times adapted until the 16th century

 

The Carolingians 768-911

THE COMMON ORIGININ OF MODERN EUROPE

 

The Ottones 919-1024

PORTRAITS OF RULERS AND ORIGINS OF HERALDIC SYMBOLS

 

The Salians 1024-1125

A DYNASTY AND THE INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY

The Investiture Controversy caused the rise of many counter-kings opposing the ruling Henry IV opponent of Pope Gregory VII.

 

Emperor Henry IV and his Sons

PORTRAITS, REGALIA AND HERALDIC SYMBOLS

It is said that no contemporary portraits of Emperor Henry IV exist. Nevertheless we can compose a series of portraits of him and his sons Conrad and Henry (V), giving an idea of the crowns, sceptres and sword of state they used and the heraldic devices they developed.

 

Lothair II

THE PERFECT CANDIDATE

Lothair II was widely recognized as his portraits in France may demonstrate

 

Conrad III the Crusader

PORTRAIT AND ARMS

Not only a seal of Conrad III is preserved but some other portraits today in St. Maurice en Agaune can be ascribed to him. Also a Madonna representing his wife and son was found in Schwäbisch-Gmünd.

 

Frederick I Barbarossa (*1123-†1190)

SEALS, PORTRAITS, ARMS

Many portraits of Frederick I have been attributed to other rulers in particular to Constantine the Great and Charlemagne. Several 12th century portraits of a red bearded ruler are found out to be of him.

 

Henry VI Hohenstaufen (*1165-†1197)

PORTRAITS, BANNERS, ARMS

 

Otto IV of Brunswick (*1177-†1218)

THE ONLY WELF EMPEROR

 

Frederick II Hohenstaufen (*1194-†1250)

IMAGES OF THE STUPOR MUNDI

A series of portraits of the last Hohenstaufen Emperor gathered from his seals and from other sources.

 

Henry VII  Hohenstaufen (*1211 - †1242)

ARMS AND IMAGES  OF A  REBELLIOUS KING

Because of his falling in disgrace the memory of Henry VII, an important king in many respects, has faded away. Nevertheless, images and heraldic documents could be found of him, including the so-called Bamberger Reiter.

 

Henry Raspe IV of Thuringia (*1202ca-†1247)

THE PAPIST KING

The arms and images of a German king who ruled for only nine months.

 

William II of Holland (*1227-†1256)

RELICS OF A RECKLESS KING

Of this Roman King, so neglected in German historiography, some portraits have been preserved in German collections. Of these the socalled „Magdeburger Reiter”, usually identified as Otto the Great, most certainly is a statue of king William II. Also it is for sure that he bore the coat of arms of the Roman King: Or, an eagle sable.

 

Richard of Cornwall

ARMS AND PORTRAITS

 

Deutscher Orden

THE ARMS OF THE ORDER AND ITS GRAND MASTERS