The Arms of the Kingdom

The Aragonese Monarchy

The Court

Republic and Civil War

Autonomous Community of Aragon


Back to Part 1

The Arms of the Kingdom


In the time of Alfonso el Batallador the emblem of armed authority was a christogram which was universal for all christian armies. By individualizing the cross-and-shield a difference could be made between often rivalling armies. One such an army was the armed force of the Ecclesia which introduced a red cross on a white field on banners and shields as early as the 11th century. 


As Aragon was a papal vassal since 1068 when Sancho Ramirez had offered his kingdom to the Papacy paying a tribute of  600 gold marks yearly, a red cross on a white field may have been introduced in Aragon as early as 1068. No contemporary sources confirming such a martial badge  for Aragon however are available. A red cross on a white field appearing in the 13th century in the Usatges de Barcelona, is attributed to Raymond Berenger I, the Elder, count of Barcelona (1035-’76), then a (nominally) Frankish vassal.

It was not until 1258, by the Treaty of Corbeil, that the king of France formally relinquished his feudal overlordship over the counties of the Principality of Catalonia to the king of Aragon James I, descendant of Ramon Berenguer IV. It was in this time that the Usatges de Barcelona were edited in its final form and making at the same time Raymond Berenger I alias the count of Barcelona James I, a papal vassal.

The arms of Aragon originates in a time of a conflict of Peter III with the Papacy about the kingdom of Sicily which had been granted to Charles of Anjou instead of to Konrad Hohenstaufen, brother in law of Peter III. After the defeat and beheading of Konrad in 1268, all members of the Hohenstaufen family Charles of Anjou could lay hands on, were killed or imprisoned except the wife of Peter III, Constance, leaving her the heiress of Sicily. As the Pope was dedicated to Charles, James I thus became automatically the enemy of the Papacy. The enmity of the Papacy towards the Staufic party was a cause that at his coronation in Zaragoza on 27 July 1276 Peter III renounced al his feudal obligations to the Papacy which his grandfather Peter II had reaffirmed in 1204.


No emblem of the Aragonese is known from before 1281. In that year a seal was used showing a shield charged with a cross between four moor’s heads and within a legend meaning “The serpent has caused the curse, the cross has repelled it”.


The arms of Aragon, which probably had referred to these feudal obligations were changed by Pedro III by adding to the cross of the Ecclesia four moor’s heads in its quarters. These moor’s heads are the symbol of Saint Mauritius who was the patron saint of the Roman emperors since the time of the Ottones and later also of the Hohenstaufen. They also match the four estates (brazos) represented in the Cortes. By this addition, the cross of St George, the patron saint of the Ecclesia, was changed into the cross of St. Mauritius.

According to Sagarra in his Sigillografia Catalana these arms were adopted after a campaign under the command of Conrad de Llansa to Tunisia in 1279 to re-establish aragonese suzerainty after the death of Muhammad I al-Mustansir (†1277) who had recognized the suzerainty of James I the Conqueror before.

Also, in 1281 Peter III armed a fleet to invade Tunisia again and applied to pope Martin V to declare the expedition a crusade but, the pope refused. 

Maybe these expeditions were held with the (financial) approvement of the Aragonese Parliament which was then rewarded with a coat of arms. However, no documentation about such a grant is available.

However, the quite persistent explanation of these arms usually is that the four heads represent the four moorish kings defeated at the Battle of Las Navas in 1212.

Another misconception, introduced by Gelre Herald in the 14th century, is that these arms really are the arms of Sardinia which of course is contradicted by the use of them in Aragon. Explicitely also, Alfonso V states in a privilege that "Quod illa quatuor capita maurorum nigrorum cum cruce rubea, quæ pro insigniis seu armis propriis Regni nostri Aragonum in campo argenteo tenemus..."  (That the four black moor’s heads  and the red cross is the true emblem or arms of our kingdom Aragon.) [1]

Seals bearing these arms were used in an alsmost uninterrupted series until about 1700. The legend on these seals was changed at the end of the 13th century when it was replaced by the second part of the royal title.


Peter III the Great



1281 Seal of Majesty: The king on his throne with sceptre and orb, a six-pointed star in dexter chief. L.: S. PETRO DEI GRACIA REGIS ARAGONVM

Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: X SER­PENS DAPNA TULIT CRUS TAMEN HEC REPULIT. (Sagarra [2])


Alfonso III the Liberal



1291 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: MAIORC ET VALNCIE 



James II the Just



King of Sardinia 1297



1293 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.:


1300 ca. Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: valnc et mvrc ac comitis barchn


1308-1321 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: valnc sardin et corsica ac comitis barchi. (Sagarra)



1326 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: valnc sardin et corsica ac comitis barcm. (A.S. Cagliari)


Alfonso IV the Benign



1328 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads.  L.: VALNC SARDIN ET CORSICA AC COMITIS BARCM. (Sagarra)


Peter IV the Ceremonious


King of Majorca 1343



1339 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: valnc sardin et corsica ac comitis barcm. (Sagarra)


1345-1379 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: et corsica comes barchi rossilionesc 

Martin I the Humane




1401 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: et corsica comes o barchi rossilllonis.


Alfonso V the Magnanimous


Knight of the Fleece. n° 42, 1445


In a privilege of Alfonso the arms with the cross and the four moor’s heads is explicitely called the arms of the kingdom of Aragon:

 "Quod illa quatuor capita maurorum nigrorum cum cruce rubea, quæ pro insigniis seu armis propriis Regni nostri Aragonum in campo argenteo tenemus..." [3]

(That the four black moor’s heads and the red cross on the silver field is the actual emblem or arms of our kingdom of Aragon)


1428 Seal: The king on his throne with sceptre and orb between two diamond shaped shields paly. L.: ALFONſUS DI GRA REX ARAON SICILIE VALNC MAIORIC SARD Z CORſIE

Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: COMI BARCH AC DVX ATHEN .......... ROSSILIONIS.  

1451 Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four moor’s heads. L.: R SIGEL NOSTRIS BARCHIO DUX ATHENARUM NEOPATRIA COMES ROSSILIONIS  (Sagar­ra)


Ferdinand II the Catholic




1490 ca. Counterseal: Arms: A cross between four heads crowned. L.: ?


Philip II



Golden Seal of Philip II as a king of Aragon



Counterseal: Arms of Aragon with crowned heads. L.: COMES BARCH DNS VIZ ET MOL DVX ATH ET NEOP ROSS ET CER


Coin of Philip II (III) 1611

The arms of Aragon on the reverse


Charles III

Pretender 1700-1713


Gold seal of Charles III Habsburg for the Kingdom of  Aragon.


Counterseal: Arms with crowned moor’s heads.. L.:  COMES BARC. DNS VIZ ET MOL DVX ATH ET NEOP COMES ROSS ET CER.


This golden seal is pending from a Royal Warrant, dated Barcelona, 12 August 1707, authorizing his brother, the Emperor Joseph I., to arrange the contract of marriage in his name with the Princess Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick-Lüneburg. [4]


The Aragonese Monarchy


In the 12th century the possessions of the kings of Aragon were extended with Ceritania (1117) and Roussillon (1177). In the 13th century their territories were extended with the kingdom of Majorca (1231), Valencia (1238), Sicily-Trinacria (1282), Corsica and Sardinia (1297) and Athens and Neopatras (1312).

Accordingly the title of Peter IV (1336-’87) was a summing up of the royal titles of these territories:




The emblems of kingdoms, corresponding with the terms of the royal title, are given by Gelre Herald in his Armorial but, for some reason, he attributed the arms of Valencia to Aragon and the arms of Aragon to Sardinia.



The banners of the kingdoms of  Pedro IV, the Ceremonious

Armorial du Héraut Gelre, KB. Brussel, Ms. 15652-56 fol. 62v.


The banners are:

Valencia: Azure, a square cross patée fitchée Argent.

Aragon: Argent, a cross Gules between four moor’s heads Sable

Majorca: Paly of nine Gules and Or.

Sardinia and Corsica: Or, a moor’s head Sable with a headscarf Argent.


The Cross of Valencia ?



The arms with the cross patée fitchée is documented by Gelre Herald in the second half of the 14th century. In his armorial a banner with such a cross is attributed to Aragon but, as the arms with the moor’s heads are attributed to Sardinia, that may be a mistake too. An alternative attribution is to the Kingdom of Valencia of which, after the Union of Valencia of 1348, the deputation had to comply with the demands of king Peter IV making war with Peter of Castile.

Apparently this was the reason why Peter IV has added the cross on the blue field on the lambrequines of his arms.

It must be admitted that the arms with the cross are only known from the Gelre manuscript and the sculptures from Zaragoza together with some 16th and 17th century publications. Also these

arms are called of Ainsa (the cradle of Aragon) by 16th century publications.There is a slight possibility that these arms were borrowed from the ephemeral king of Valencia Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, (El Cid ca. 1040-‘99), the alfaréz of Sancho II and Alfonso VI.

The arms are in the Libro de los Testamentos (1124) on the page where King Ordoño is represented.

The same arms are on a capital in the royal palace in Tudela, built in the time of Garcia IV the Restorer of Navarra (1134-’50) who was a grandson of El Cid by his mother Cristina.

The capital shows a knight on horseback fighting with a Almoravid warrior, probably defeating the ruler of Valencia al Qadir in 1192 or an Almoravid adversary at the battle of Caurte in 1094.

In that case the arms were reinvented for the purpose after 1238, when Valencia had been reconquered. Indeed not long after, coins were struck showing such a cross rising from some foliage (i.e. a tree symbolizing the territory) with the legend VALENCIA. This cross, a common symbol on aragonese coins long before, was in that case maintained on the arms of Valencia.

Nevertheless, the attribution of these arms to the kingdom (not the deputies or the city which all bore the royal pales) is the best acceptable explanation for its later use.


Capital showing a shield with a square cross fitchée, about 1140 [5]

Royal Palace at Estella (Navarra).



As Corsica was lost to the Genuese in 1434 the title SARDIN ET CORSICA was omitted on the later seals of Alfonso V. The arms of Sardinia & Corsica were accordingly abandoned by the Aragonese, to return later as

Argent, a moor’s head Sable with a headscarf Argent for the Island of Corsica


Argent, a cross Gules between for moor’s heads Sable with headscarfs Argent for the Island of Sardinia.

The arms of the united kingdoms appeared in about the end of the reign of Alfonso the Magnanimous. It was: per pale of Valencia and Aragon, and a chief of Majorca, the arms of Sardinia-Corsica omitted.


Cash-book of the Representation of Teruel 1450

(Libro de cuentas de la Tabla del General de Teruel)  [6]


Showing the arms of the United Kingdom of Aragon composed of the arms of Majorca, Valencia and Aragon.


In 1499 the coats of arms of Valencia, Aragon and Majorca were redefined by the chronicler Guadalberto Fabricio de Vagad in his “Cronica de Aragon”. (Zaragoza, 1499).  He attributed them to the ancient kingdoms of Aragon that is to say of Iñigo Arista (824-851), of his son Garcia Iñiguez (851-880) and of Raymond Berengar IV (1131-’62).

At the same time he augmented the arms of the United Kingdom with the arms of Sobrarbe consisting of a golden shield with an oak-tree, a latin cross in its top. These arms were attibuted to Garcia Jimenez “Suprarbrorum Rege” who was supposed to be elected in 716 or 724. [7] It is a so-called “canting arms” and a rebus of ‘a cross on a tree’. About its origin is speculated with fervour an enthousiasm but all we can say is that it was certainly invented and introduced by De Vagad.

A large woodcut of it is printed on the frontispiece of the Cronica:



The arms were extensively explained by Lucio Marineo Sículo in his "De Aragoniae Regibus et eorum rebus gestis libri V" (Zaragoza, 1509).

Later they were reproduced on several editions of the chronicles of Aragon by Jeronimo Zurita.


An interesting question of course is why De Vagad has invented these arms and, who has charged him to make a new design and change the symbolism of its quarters. Probably his mandator has been king Ferdinand II who wanted to have an emblem not symbolizing the parts of his posessions by right of conquest but just a confirmation that his rule was legitimized by right of succession.


In any case the arms quarterly for the aragonese monarchy was used for about two centuries until it was liquidated by Philip V. In the course of time it underwent small changes.


A representation of the arms quarterly of Aragon,

On the fronispiece of the “Primera Parte de los Anales de Aragon”, 1630


Photo H.d.V.

Arms of the Aragonese Monarchy on the façade of the Church of St. Isabella, Zaragoza.


The arms are quarterly of Sobrarbe, the cross of Iñigo Arista, the cross of St. George and Ramon Berenguer.

The inscription mentions the name of Queen Isabella of Portugal (*1503-†1539), the wife of Charles I (V) and the year 1683. On top of the façade is another, similar coat of arms.


Even when the arms quarterly were used well into the 17th century, it was already changed in the 16th century. A first change was made by impaling the pales of Majorca in the fourth quarter with the arms of Sicily-Trinacria.


Arms of the Aragonese Monarchy on a tapestry, 16th cent.


A second change was made at the end of the 16th century or the very beginning of the 17th. This was done by rearranging the quarters and adding an escutcheon:

Arms: Quarterly: Majorca, Valencia, Aragon, Sicily-Trinacria; escutcheon: Sobrarbe.

These arms were used until the abolition of the parliament by king Philip V.


Tombstone from the Panteón de los Diputados del Reino

Black marble from the Calatorao quarries. 17th century.  Museo Municipal de Zaragoza


Arms quarterly of Majorca, Valencia, Aragon and Sicily with an escutcheon Sobrarbe.

The inscription reads:





(This crypt is of the  illustrious lords deputy of …)


Crowned arms of the Aragonese Monarchy, 1604


On the frontispiece of: Indice de las cosas mas notables que se hallan en las qvatro partes de las Annales y las dos de la historia de Geronimo Çurita, Cronista del Reyno de Aragon. Dirigido a los illvstrissimos Señores Diputados del. (Zaragoza, 1604)

The arms quarterly with an escutcheon Sobrarbe is between the legend: Stemmata nobilitant alios Clariſsima Reges: At ſua, Celtiberi, ſtemmata nobilitant.


Crowned arms of the Aragonese Monarchy,

On the frontispiece of a publication, 1705


After the liquidation of the United Kingdom of Aragon the arms of the kingdom disappeared also.


No information could be obtained about the time of french occupation and the spanish kingdom of Joseph Bonaparte (1808-‘13)

We may however assume that at first the french imperial eagle was also valid in Spain and after 1808 the arms of king Joseph Bonaparte. These were used by all lower instances of the government




In 1822 the former kingdom of Aragon was divided in the provinces of Guadalajara, Soria, Teruel and Zaragoza

And in 1833 in the provinces of Huesca, Teruel and Zaragoza


For arms of the provines the arms of their capitals were taken:









In the Franco-era they were:




The Court


The precursors of the Aragonese Parliament emerged in the twelfth century. They began as incomplete, sporadic meetings which gave rise to important events in the history of the Kingdom, such as the 1134 Government of Borja. The thirteenth century saw the beginnings of what later became the magnas asambleas, or ‘major assemblies’. From 1384 until the end of the fifteenth century Parliament began to consolidate itself and develop, and it remained while Aragon was first independent and then autonomous, ending only when the Kingdom itself ceased to exist.

The Aragonese Cortes (Parliament), consisted of four estates (brazos): the greater and lesser nobles, the citizens and the clergy and was governed by complicated rules of procedure. Redress preceded supply, and unanimity was in theory required for the approval of any measure. The Cortes also claimed the right to declare war. The most important political office in the country was that of the justicia mayor. He was arbitrator between king and nobles or people when disputes arose with the crown, and his decisions were virtually final. A permanent parliamentary comission  (diputación del reyno) existed to deal with finance, observance of the fueros (privileges), and matters pertaining the peace of the realm.


In the fifteenth century, in the time of King Alfonso V (1416-’58) the arms of the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia together with the royal arms appeared on the Palace of the Deputations in Zaragoza, inaugurated 1450. The most ancient of this alliance shows the royal arms with the crest of the House of Trastamare which was a dragon issuant, on a helmet lambrequined of Valencia being Azure, a cross paté fitchée Argent. A more recent or even contemporary version shows the royal arms crowned.


This achievement represents the Crown of Aragon. It may go back to the Compromise of Caspe during which the assembled deputations of Aragon, Valencia and Catalonia elected a new king after the death of King Martin I without issue and the following interim period (1410-’12).

According to the decisions taken then, the arms of the new king are those of the House of Trastamare to which the new king Ferdinand I (being a grandson of Henry II Trastamare) belonged.


The achievement of the Court as in Zaragoza was made in the civil war in Aragon (1462-’72) in which king John II was declared an enemy of the country. Henry of Castile was elected in his place in Catalonia. This may explain why the arms of Catalonia (Argent, a cross Gules) are missing.


Achievement of the Court, the royal arms crested. 1445-’65

 Zaragoza, Municpal Museum.


Formerly in the Ancient Palace of the Deputations of the kingdom in Zaragoza. Situated on the banks of the river Ebro next to the Puente de Piedra (Stone Bridge), destroyed by fire on 28 January 1809.


Achievement the Court, the royal arms crowned. 1445-’65

 Zaragoza, Municpal Museum.


It can be seen on both reliefs that the arms of the kingdoms are supported by an angel which probably indicates that both institutions were autonomous. On the arms of the aragonese deputation the moor’s heads have scarfs around their heads.


After the reign of Ferdinand II the arms with the moor’s heads with scarfs around their heads were made the arms of the kingdom of Sardinia. The moor’sheads of the arms of the aragonese deputies were crowned instead


Altar of the Holy Virgin and Child, lower part, about 1569

From the Prison of the Declaration of  the Kingdom of Aragon. Oratory of the Deputies of the Kingdom.

Painting by Jerónimo Vallejo Cósida (Zaragoza *1516-†1592). Municipal Museum Zaragoza.


On this altar the royal arms are crowned and the moor’s heads are crowned instead of  having scarfs around their heads.


The achievement of the Court

On the fronstispiece of Jeronimo Zurita:

Los cincos Libros postreros de la segunda parte de los Anales de la Corona de Aragon. 1579


On this woodcut, of only ten years later than the painting of Vallejo Cosida, the royal arms are crested again.


Achievement of the Court

On the 1610 edition of the Anales of Zurita


The same stamp was used on later publications, for example on the Actos de Cortes del Reyno de Aragon of 1664 which was printed by order of the deputies.


After the liquidation of the united kingdom the heraldic emblems of the court disappeared also


Later, after the french occupation a new assembly of Aragon was created in May 1821, justified by the constitution of 1812.

The emblem of the assembly shows the personification of Aragon in cuirass and with helmet and spear, holding the Tables of Law incribed with the words CONSTITUCION POLITICA, the O of Constitucion illuminating the royal Arms for Aragon. At her feet are the symbols of the res publica, the arts, commerce and prosperity. Below, a pedestal is inscribed GOBIERNO POLITICO DE ARAGON. [8]

Seal of the Provincial Government of Aragon, 1822


After the restoration of the absolutist regime of king Ferdinand VII in 1823, this assembly disappeared.


Republic and Civil War


In the time of the Second Republic (1931-’39) paper money was issued in 1935 by the city of Caspe showing the coat of arms of the city as a kind of provisional arms of Aragon. 



In 1936  a  Council of Aragón was established by the anarchists in Caspe. This council adopted a coat of arms on 22 January 1937 which was published in

The preambula and description as published in Nuevo Aragón, nº 66, of 6 April 1937 reads:



«Este Aragón que nace no podía conformarse con el antiguo escudo regional, símbolo de oscurantismo, oprobio y esclavitud.

De ahí que los aragoneses que viven en toda su intensidad estos albores de un futuro libre y digno, hayan creado el nuevo escudo de su región, que damos a publicidad hoy, y que consta de cuatro cuarteles, separados por la A, inicial de Aragón.

En el primer cuartel aparecen los pirineos aragoneses, fronterizos a Huesca, que representan a esta provincia.

En el segundo, aparece un olivo, símbolo de la riqueza olivarera de Teruel, que a esta misma representa.

Vemos en el tercero un río, el Ebro, cuyas aguas corren bajo su puente representativo de Zaragoza.

La cadena rota del cuarto cuartel, simboliza al nuevo y libre Aragón.

Y coronando el escudo, un sol naciente, emblema del Aragón que brota sobre lo derruido por los enemigos de la libertad».

That is:

The Aragon that is born cannot accept the ancient regional arms, symbol of obscurantism, oppression and slavery.

Therefore the aragonese living in the dawn of a free and dignified future in all its intensity have created a new arms for their region, which we publish today and which consists of four quarters, separated by the A, the first letter of Aragon.

In the first quarter there are the Pyrenees, representing the border of the province in Huesca.

In the second there is an olive-tree, symbol of the wealth of olive orchards of Teruel which is represented in the same

In the third we see the river Ebro flowing under a bridge representing Zaragoza

The broken chain in the fourth quarter symbolizes the new and free Aragon

And the shield is crested with a rising sun which shines over the destruction of the enemies of liberty.


The arms were also on the flag of the council and on the badge of the police




About one year later, on 17 March 1938, the republicans were defeated at  the Battle of Caspe.

In Caspe the headquarters of the victorious Moroccan Army Corps were established charged with the occupation of  the river Ebro.

Arms of the Moroccan Army Corps.


Autonomous Community of Aragon


After the death of Generalissimo Franco the cabinet council approved a provisional regime on 11 March 1978. On 9 April a General House of Representatives of Aragon was established followed by the establishment of the Autonomous Communities by Constitution of 31 October, ratified 6 December 1978.  For the Autonomous  Community  of Aragon a coat of arms was adopted  resembling the former arms of Aragon which was quarterly of Sobrarbe, Ainsa/Valencia, Aragon and Majorca. Such a coat of arms was also used for the earlier province of Zaragoza in the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the cross on the tree of Sobrarbe omitted. [9]

The arms were royally crowned.




By law of 16 April 1984 the arms were officially adopted and described. The law reads:


Escudo cuartelado en cruz: Primer cuartel, sobre campo de oro, una encina desarraigada, con siete raigones, en sus colores naturales, coronada por cruz latina cortada y de gules. Segundo, sobre campo de azur, cruz patada de plata, apuntada en el brazo inferior y adiestrada en el cantón del jefe. Tercero, sobre campo de plata, una cruz de San Jorge, de gules, cantonada de cuatro cabezas de moro, de sable y encintadas de plata. Cuarto, sobre campo de oro, cuatro palos gules iguales entre sí y a los espacios del campo. Todo el escudo, timbrado de corona real abierta de ocho florones, cuatro de ellos visibles, con perlas, y ocho flores de lis, cinco visibles, con rubíes y esmeraldas en el aro, en proporción con el escudo de dos y medio a seis.

Ley 2/1984, de 16 de abril, art. 4º pub. en B.O.A. n.º 5, 18 de abril de 1984.

That is:


A quartered shield: In te first quarter on a golden field an oak-tree eradicated of seven roots, in its natural colors, crrested with a latin cross Gules. The second, on a blue field, a cross patée, the lower arm pointed in dexter chief. In the third, on a silver field, a cross of St. George Gules, in every quarter a moor’s head Sable with silver head-scarfs. The fourth on a golden field four pales Gules equally distributed over the field. On the shield an open royal crown of eight leaves, of which four visible, with pearls, and eight fleurs-de-lis, of which five visible, with rubies and emeralds omn the diadem, of the proportion of two and a half to six to the shield.



Back to Main Page



© Hubert de Vries 2013-10-21


[1] Vicente Cascante, Ignacio: Heraldica General y Fuentes de las Armas de España. Salvat. Eds. S.A.. Barcelona, 1956, p. 421. Pictures from: Fois, Barbara: Lo Stemma dei Quattro Mori. Breve Storia dell'emblema dei Sardi. Carlo Delfino editore. Sassari, 1992. The arms of Sardinia were invented by king Ferdinand II in about 1500.

[2] Sagarra y de Siscar, Fernando de. : Sigillografia Catalana. 5 Vol's. Barcelona, 1916-1932

[3] Vicente-Cascante, op. cit. p. 421.

[4] Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles: The Art of Heraldry. An Encyclopaedia of Armory. Arno Press, 1904. Fig. 1092

[5] The capital is usually thought to be a representation of Roland at Roncevalles

[6] Archivo de la Diputacion de Zaragoza.

[7] Menéndez Pidal de Navascués, Faustino: El Blason de la villa de Cintruenigo y las armas de Sobrarbe. In: Hidalguia, 1955, pp. 121-136.

[8] Source: Internet.

[9] Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada: Ariculo «Articulo España», 1915