DAUPHINÉ

 

 

HISTORY

HERALDRY

Dauphins of Vienne   

Dauphiné Province

Departments since 1789

Region Rhône-Alpes 1982-2016

Gendarmerie

 

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History

Départements: Drôme, Hautes Alpes, Isère.

 

Dauphiné (de Vienne): Region around the Isère between the Rhône and the Alps.

 

The area of the future Dauphiné was inhabited by the Allobroges and other Gaulish tribes in ancient times. The region was conquered by the Romans before Gallia conquest by Julius Caesar.  Vienna became a Roman colony and one of the most important cities of Gallia.

After the end of the Western Roman Empire, the region suffered from invasions of Visigoths and Alans tribes. The Burgundians settled in Vienne. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the region became part of the kingdom of Lotharingia. But the King of France Charles the Bald soon claimed authority over this territory.

The governor of Vienne, Boson of Provence, proclaimed himself king of Burgundy in 879 and the region became part of the Kingdom of Arelat, which remained independent until 1032, when it became part of the Holy Roman Empire.

At that time, the development of feudal society and the weakness of the Emperor’s rule allowed for the creation of several small ecclesiastic or secularist States (the region of Viennois, for example, was under the rule of the archbishop of Vienne). But in the middle of that chaos, the Counts of Albon succeeded in uniting these different territories under their rule.

Amidst the chaos of feudal rule, the Counts of Albon began to rise above other feudal lords and acquire dominance over the region. Their story begins with Guigues I the Old (died 1070), Lord of Annonay and Champsaur. During his reign, he gained significant territories for his province: a part of the Viennois, the Grésivaudan and the Oisans. Moreover, the Emperor gave him the region of Briançon. The territories combined under his personal rule became a sovereign mountain principality within the Holy Roman Empire. The count made a significant decision when he chose the small city of Grenoble as capital of his state instead of the prestigious city of Vienne, which was the long-established seat of a powerful bishop. This choice allowed him to assert authority over all his territories.

In the 12th century, the local ruler Count Guigues IV of Albon (c.1095–1142) was nicknamed le Dauphin (French for dolphin). His descendants changed their title from Count of Albon to Dauphin of Viennois. The state took the name of Dauphiné.

However, the Dauphiné did not, at this point, have its modern borders. The region of Vienne and Valence were independent and even in Grenoble, the capital, the authority was shared with the bishop. Furthermore, the cities of Voiron and la Côte-Saint-André were parts of the County of Savoy, while the Dauphins had the Faucigny and territories in Italy. This tangle between Dauphiné and Savoy resulted in several conflicts. The last Dauphin, Humbert II of Viennois, made peace with his neighbour. He also acquired the city of Romans. He finally created the Conseil Delphinal and the University of Grenoble and enacted the Delphinal Status, a kind of constitution that protected the rights of his people.

 

Union with France (1349)

The significant debts of Humbert II and the death of his son and heir led to the sale of his lordship to King Philip VI in 1349, by the terms of the treaty of Romans, negotiated by his protonotary, Amblard de Beaumont. A major condition was that the heir to the throne of France would be known as le Dauphin, which was the case from that time until the French Revolution. The first Dauphin de France was Philippe's grandson, the future Charles V of France. The title also conferred an appanage on the region.

 

Heraldry

 

The prince of Vienne called himself Dauphin from the beginning of the 12th century. The name Dauphin is derived from the greek word ‘adelphos’ (adelfoς) meaning ‘brother’ A hundred years later he adopted a coat of arms with a dolphin as a pun on his title. Following the fashion of the 14th century a crest was added in 1308. From this time the dolphin and the arms with the dolphin became ‘of the Dauphiné’, the other versions being the arms of the Dauphin.

After the sale of the territory to the king of France in 1349 the dolphin blason was quartered with the arms of France, at first the arms strewn with fleurs de lis and when the number of fleurs the lis was reduced to three with the modern version of these arms. In the 16th century the crest became obsolete and was replaced by a crown, always following the fashion of the time. Also, the princely  arms were surrounded by the collar of the order of chivalry of which the Dauphin was a member. With this last version of arms quarterly, with a crown an surrounded by collars of chivalry the development of the princely arms came to an end in the 17th century.

 

An achievement was designed by John II in 1294 who gave his arms a griffin (a ducal badge of rank, in fact meaning “By the Grace of the Duke” here: the archbishop of Vienne, prince of Grenoble) for supporter. After the creation of the Delphinal Council by Humbert II in 1337 the griffin was replaced by a pair of dragons of which the meaning is unclear but usually are the symbol of the Old Testament. In the time of French rule these dragons were replaced by a pair of angels which were the symbol of a heavenly mandate expressed in the formula “By the Grace of God” and which were also the supporters of the arms of France.

The angels for supporters were also maintained after the Delphinal Council was replaced by the  Parliament of the Dauphiné on 29 July 1453.

In the time of absolutism an achievement was designed encompassing all institutions of state, consisting of the princley arms, crown, orders of chivalry, supporters and vaulted mantle. Such an achievement came on the ceilimg of the main room in the House of Parliament in Grenoble

 

After the abolition of the principality all heraldic symbols regarding the principality became obsolete.

 

Dauphins of Vienne

 

House of Albon

Lords of Château d'Albon

Guigues I of Albon the Old (c. 1000-1070), Count in Oisans, Grésivaudan and Briançonnais, Lord of Château d'Albon, ruled until 1070

Guigues II of Albon the Fat (c.1020-1079), Count in Grésivaudan and Briançonnais, Lord of Château d'Albon, ruled 1070-1079, son

 

Counts of Albon

Guigues III

1079-1133

Guigues III of Albon the Count (c.1050-1133), first Count of Albon (the southern part of the ancient County of Vienne, divided between himself and the Count of Savoy), ruled 1079-1133, son

 

Guigues IV

1113-1142

Guigues IV of Albon, le Dauphin (c. 1095-1142), Count of Albon, ruled 1133-1142, son

 

The name dauphin is derived from the Roman name for the region around Vienne  which they called Delphinatus Viennensis. This name in its turn is derived from the Greek word adolphos meaning brother. Delphinatus Viennensis therefore should be translated as “The brotherhood of Vienne” and has nothing to do with a dolphin. The dolphin may be adopted by Guigues as a pun to the name Delphinatus Viennensis.

 

Guigues V of Albon (c. 1120-1162), Count of Albon and Grenoble, Dauphin of Viennois, ruled 1142-1162

Béatrice of Albon, (1161-1228), Dauphine of Viennois, Countess of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans et Briançon, ruled 1162-1228, married Hugh III of Burgundy

 

House of Burgundy

André Guigues VI Dauphin

1228-1237

Guigues VI of Viennois (1184-1237), Dauphin of Viennois, count of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon, son of, ruled 1228-1237

 

Equestrian seal of André Dauphin de Viennois

 1st type (1210-1230?) Æ70 mm.

(Joseph Roman Sceaux du Dauphiné. Paris 1888. p 69, n° 173)

 

On his counterseal a representation of the city-palatine of Vienne.

 

Guigues VII Dauphin

1237-1270

 

Guigues VII of Viennois (c.1225-1269), Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans, Briançon, Embrun and Gap, son of, ruled 1237-1269

In 1253, Guigues married Beatrice of Savoy (1237–1310). For her dowry, Beatrice brought Guigues Faucigny, a distant territory menacing Savoy, the traditional enemy of the Viennois. 

Equestrian seal of Guigues VII, 1237

 

Arms: Dolphin

Legend: .......MCV I COM...........LPHINI  [1]

 

Vienne (Dauphiné) became a fief of Frederick II in 1238

 

Conrad von Mure describes the arms in about 1240:

 

57 Ferre Vigensis auri clipeo memoratur

     Delphinum, cuius blavus color esse notatur

 

That is: It is said that he from Vienne bears a golden shield with a Dolphin, the colour of which is known as blue [2]

 

Jean, Dauphin

1270-1281

John I of Viennois (1263-1282), Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans, Briançon and Embrun, son of, ruled 1269-1282

 

Beatrice of Savoy (c.1237-21 April 1310) was suo jure Dame of Faucigny through the inheritance from her mother Agnes of Faucigny. Her father was Peter II, Count of Savoy, she was his only legitimate child, but due to Salic law  that existed in Savoy, she was excluded from the succession upon his death in 1268. In addition to being Dame, Beatrice held the titles of Dauphine of Viennois and Viscountess of Béarn by her two marriages.

During the minority of her son she bore the dolphin of the Dauphiné but later the cross of Savoy

 

1271. Seal: Castle. CS.: Arms: Dolphin. Legend: S BE..... COMIT.. (Cib. 20)

1279. CS.: Arms.: Cross.  Legend: S BEATCIS FILIE COMITIS FAVCI.  . (Cib. 22)

1309. Arms: Cross Legend: BEATCIS FILIE PET COMITIS S....DIE.. (Cib. 23) [3]

 

Anne, Dauphine

1281-1301

¥ Humbert I La Tour du Pin 1282-1307

Anne of Viennois (1255-1298), Dauphine of Viennois, Countess of Albon, sister of, married Humbert, Baron of La Tour du Pin

 

 

This and like citations from: Douët d’Arcq Collection de Sceaux.

https://archive.org/stream/collectiondescea01douuoft#page/360/mode/1up

 

House of La Tour du Pin

Humbert I

1282-1307

Humbert I of Viennois, (c.1240-1307), husband of, Baron of La Tour du Pin, Dauphin of Viennois and Count of Albon, ruled 1282-1307

 

Seal of Humbert I, Revers 1287

 

Arms: Dol­phin. Legend:  S. HUMBERT DELPHINI VIENNENSIS ET ALBONIE COMITIS

 

Jean II

1307-1318

John II of Viennois (1280-1318), Baron of La Tour du Pin, Dauphin of Viennois, son of, ruled 1307-1318

 

In 1294 the seal of the Dauphin Jean, son of Humbert I. bears the arms of Dauphin’s pendent from the neck of a griffon.

Seal of John

 

Arms: Dolphin

Supporter: Griffin passant reguardant

Legend: X S IOHIS PRIMOGENITI DALPH VIE

 

From: Histoire de Dauphiné et des princes qui ont porté le nom de dauphins ...

by Jean-Pierre Moret de Bourchenu Valbonnais, Fabri, Barrillot, Couvent des Carmes déchaussés, Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts. Geneve 1722

 

Equestrian Seal of John 1310

 

Arms: Dolphin

Crest: Dolphin

Horseclothes  decorated with dolphins, the hore crested with a dolphin

Legend: S : IOHIS DALPHIN VIENEN : ALBON: COMITIS : DNI : PB: DE TVRRE

 

 

Guigues VIII

1318-1333

Guigues VIII of Viennois (1309-1333), Dauphin of Viennois, ruled 1318-1333, son of John II,

 

Humbert II

1333-1349

Humbert II of Viennois (1312-1355), Dauphin of Viennois, brother of, ruled 1333-1349

 

Obverse and reverse of the seal of Humbert II, 1343

 

On the equestrian seal the dauphin on horseback with a shield and crest of the dolphin. On his horseclothes the dolphin repeated and the head of the horse also crested with a dolphin.

On the reverse the city of Vienne and in base an achievement of the arms of the Dauphin supported by two  dragons.

 

 

 

Arthur Fox-Davies describes this seal as follows: “The seal of Humbert II., Dauphin de Viennois (...) The shield of Dauphiny is in the centre of a quatrefoil. Two savages mounted on griffins support its flanks; on the upper edge an armed knight sits on a couchant lion, and the space in base is filled by a human face between two wingless dragons. [4]

 

Humbert II sold his lands and titles to Philip VI of France

 

The arms of the Dauphin (before1376)

In the Armorial Bellenville

 

On this leaf the arms of France are unfinished, missing the fleurs the lis. This should mean that the new arms of France were unknown or uncertain to the painter.

 

The arms of the Dauphin (after 1376)

In Gelre armorial

 

Arms: Or, a dolphin hauriant Azure, gilled Gules. Gelre fol. 46.   309: delfiiij

 

On this leaf the arms of France are Azure, three fleurs de lis Or 2&1 and it consequently should date from after 1376 when the arms of France were changed by Charles V. Nevertheless the arms given here by Gelre should be attributed to Humbert II as the Dauphins from the House of Valois have always borne a quarterly of France and Dauphiné.

 

Dauphiné Province 

1349-1789

 

Became an integral part of the Kingdom of France by treaty of 1349

 

Dauphins of Viennois and Dauphins of France

House of Valois

Charles I (V)

1349-1364

Charles I of Viennois (1338-1380), son of, also king of France as Charles V, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, Duke of Normandy, ruled the dauphinate as the first Dauphin of France (1350-1364) and ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1364-1366)

 

At the transfer of the Dauphiné from Humbert II to Philip the arms of Charles were augmented with the arms of the Dauphin in a quarterly, making the arms with the dolphin the arms of the Dauphiné and the arms quarterly the arms of the Dauphin.

 

Charles, Dauphin de Viennois (c. 1355) has his shield (also) held by a single dolphin.[5]

 

Equestrian seal of Charles I, 1349

Archives Departementales de Haute Savoie

Douët d’Arcq N° 606

 

 

1349 Arms: ¼  France (anc.) with a bordure and Dauphiné. (Charles) D.: 19.07.1349. Douët d'Arcq no  605

 

 

 

1352 Arms: ¼ France (anc.) and Dauphiné. D. 1352. Douët d'Arcq no  606

 

1359 Arms: ¼ France (anc.) with a bordure and Dauphiné. L. S. KAROLI PRIMOGENETI REGIS FRANCIE DUCIS NORMANDIE DELPHINI VIENNENSIS. D.: 1359. Douët d'Arcq no  883

 

Arms: ¼ France (anc.) with a bordure and Dauphiné.

Crest: Eagle

Supporters: 2 lions.

Date: 1360. Douët d'Arcq no  884

 

 

 

 

John

1366

John III of Viennois, son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as second Dauphin of France (1366).

 

Charles I of Viennois, father of, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1366-1368)

 

Charles II (VI)

1364-1380

Charles II of Viennois, (1368-1422), son of, also king of France as Charles VI, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as third Dauphin of France (1368-1380), ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1380-1386)

 

Charles VI made the Dauphiné a state on its own

 

Seal of the Dauphin, 1376

 

The legend reads: X SIGILLUM KAROLUS DEI GRACIA FRANCORUM REGIS & DALPHINE VIENENSIS

 

Unidentified

 

After 1376 the number of fleurs de lis was reduced to three

 

Arms of the Dauphin

Found in the Castle of Caen (Normandie)

(Musée de Normandie)

 

Charles III

1386

Charles III of Viennois, (1386), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as fourth Dauphin of France (1386)

 

Charles II of Viennois, father of, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1386-1392)

 

Charles IV

1392-1400

Charles IV of Viennois, (1392-1401), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, Duke of Guyenne, ruled the dauphinate as fifth Dauphin of France (1392-1401)

 

Louis I

1400-1415

Louis I of Viennois (1397-1415), brother of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, Duke of Guyenne, ruled the dauphinate as sixth Dauphin of France (1401-1415)

 

 

Equestrian Seal: Arms ¼ France and Dauphiné. Crest: Fleur de lis. L.: X s ludovici pgeniti francorum reg duc aquitane dalphini viennen. (Vredius 1642 p. 122 n 1.)

CS.: Arms: Idem. Supporter: Seated angel. (Vredius 1642 p. 122 n° 2)

 

Guillaume de Laire Gouverneur (1407-’10)

 

Arms: 1. ¼ France and Dauphiné.; 2. Argent, a lion rampant Gules and a bordure engrailed Sable. Crest: ? (De Laire);

Legend: GUILLERMI DE ARM MILITIS GUBERNATO DOLPH VIENES

 

Jean (II)

1415-1417

John IV of Viennois (1398-1417), brother of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, Duke of Touraine, ruled the dauphinate as seventh Dauphin of France (1415-1417)

 

Charles V (VII)

1417-1422   

Charles V of Viennois, (1403-1461), brother of, also king of France as Charles VII, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois, Valentinois and Ponthieu, ruled the dauphinate as eighth Dauphin of France (1417-1422), ruled the dauphinate as king of France/King of Bourges (1422-1423/1429)

 

Seal of Charles VII, 1425

Cast. Arch. Nat. France sc/St 7722  [6]

Achievement:

Arms: ¼ France and Dauphiné

Supporters: Two angels kneeling

Legend: S KAROLI DEI GRACIA FRANCORUM REGIS ET DALPHIN VIENNENSIS.

 

Louis II (XI)

1423-1456

Louis II of Viennois, (1423-1483), son of, also king of France as Louis XI, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as ninth Dauphin of France (1423/1429-1461), ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1461-1466)

 

Hundred Years' War and Louis XI’s rule

The nobility of the Dauphiné took part in the battles of Poitiers and Agincourt. The province was also the setting for military events during the war. The Duke of Savoy and the Prince of Orange, with the help of the English and Burgundians authorities, planned to invade the Dauphiné, but at the battle of Anthon in 1430, the army of the Principality of Orange was defeated by the troops of the Dauphiné, preventing the invasion.

Louis XI was the only Dauphin of France to administer his territory, from 1447 to 1456. It was during his reign as Dauphin that the Dauphiné became totally integrated into France. At that time, it was an anarchic state, with conflicts between nobles still common. Louis XI prohibited these conflicts and forced the nobles to recognize his authority. The Conseil Delphinal became the third Parliament of France. Moreover, Louis XI politically united the Dauphiné. He forced the archbishop of Vienne, the bishop of Grenoble and the Abbot of Romans all to pledge allegiance to him. He also acquired Montélimar and the Principality of Orange.

Because of his opposition to his father, Charles VII, he was forced to leave the Dauphiné. The King took back the control of the province and forced the Estates to pledge allegiance in 1457, putting an end to the autonomy of Dauphiné

 

Loys daulphin de Viennois filz de Charles septiesme,

From: Armorial du héraut Navarre, f°2 (©BNF)

The arms in the Grand Armorial de la Toison d’Or 1440 ca. [7]

 

The arms of the Dauphin can also be found in Armorial Bergshammer: le daufin: ¼ of France and Or, a dolphin Azure. [8]

 

Louis I and his banner at the siege of Dieppe, 1442

From: Jean Chartier, Chroniques du règne de Charles VII

Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 2691, fol. 131

 

Louis I was one of the french commanders during the siege.

 

The Dauphin of Vienne

From: Hyghalmen roll (1447-’55) Heralds` College Manuscript

 

Equestrian seal of Louis II (1479)

Æ 103 mm Arch. Nat. Franc. (S4979).

 

Arms: ¼ France & Dauphiné

Crest: France

Legend:  SIGILLVM LUDOVIC DEI GRACIA FRA ........... HINI VIENNENSIS

 

 

In 1453 king Louis XI reorganised the Delphinal Council, created in 1337 by Humbert II, into a Sovereign Court of Justice named Parlement du Dauphiné. It was the third Court of Justice created in France after Paris and Toulouse

 

 

Francis I

1466

Francis I of Viennois, (1466), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as tenth Dauphin of France (1466). He was the last ruling the Dauphiné as a sovereign state.

 

Louis II of Viennois, father of, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1466-1470)

 

Charles VI (VIII)

1462-1483

Charles VI of Viennois, (1470-1498), son of, also king of France as Charles VIII, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as eleventh Dauphin of France (1470-1483), ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1483-1492). Was the last Dauphin ruling a sovereign state of Dauphiné

 

From: Die Burgunderbeute, Bern, 1969.

 

Image

The arms of the Dauphin and the Count Palatine of the Rine

In the armorial of Conrad Güneberg, 1483 ca.

 

The arms of the Dauphin de Vienne with crest

1560, Armorial Le Blancq ou "Un Provincial d'armoyries, grand..."  (BNF Ms Fr 5232 f°3v)

 

Charles VII

1492-1495

Charles VII of Viennois, (1492-1495), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as twelfth Dauphin of France (1492-1495)

 

Charles VI of Viennois, father of, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1495-1496)

 

Charles VIII

1496

Charles VIII of Viennois, (1496), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as thirteenth Dauphin of France (1496)

Charles VI of Viennois, father of, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1496-1497)

 

Francis II

1497

Francis II of Viennois, (1497), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as fourteenth Dauphin of France (1497)

 

Charles VI of Viennois, father of, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1497-1498)

 

Louis III (XII)

1498-1515

Louis III of Viennois, (1462-1515), son of Charles I de Valois, Duke of Orléans, also king of France as Louis XII, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1498-1515)

 

Equestrian seal of Louis III, 1498

Æ 94 mm. Cast. Arch Nat France sc/St 8060

 

Arms: ¼ France & Dauphiné

Crest: France

Legend: SIGILLVM LVDOVICI DVODECIMI DEI GRACIA FRANCORVM REGIS DALPHINI VIENNENSIS

 

Counterseal of Louis III, 1498

Æ 95 mm Arch Nat. France sc/St8060bis

Arms: ¼ France & Dauphiné

Supporter: Angel.

 

Source gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliotèque nationale de France

 

Achievment of the Dauphiné

Statuta delphinatus or the Statutes of the Dauphiné, Grenoble, about 1508.

 

"Statuta Delphinatus", Printed in Grenoble about1508, the title of which in fact is:

Libertates per illustrissimos principes delphinos viennenses delphinalibus subditis concesse statutaque et decreta ab eisdem princibus necnon magnificis delphinatus praesidibus quos gubernatores dicunt et excelsum delphinalem senatu edita..

 

(Privileges granted by the ilustrious princes Dauphins of Vienne to the delphinian subjects, and the statutes and decrees of those princes, magnificent protectors of the Dauphiné which the governors have pronounced and which the sublime Senate of the Dauphiné has proclaimed)... is a collection of ordnances for the Dauphiné and about its position in relation to the kingdom of France.

 

François I (I)

1518-1536

Francis IV of Viennois, (1518-1536), son of, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, Duke of Brittany, ruled the dauphinate as fifteenth Dauphin of France (1518-1536)

 

To bear the title of Dauphin it was necessary not only to be the heir of the throne but to be also to descent from the reigning king. For that rason Francis I who was a cousin of his predecessor Louis II, never bore the title Dauphin.

 

source gallica.bnf.fr.Bibliothèque nationale de France

Arms of the Dauphin in a roll of arms 1535

 

Around the shield the collar of the Order of St. Michel, founded 1469

 

Francis III of Viennois, (1494-1547), son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, also king of France as Francis I, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1515-1518)

 

 

François II

1515-1536

Francis V of Viennois, (1544-1560), son of, also king of France as Francis II, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, also jure uxoris king of Scotland, ruled the dauphinate as seventeenth Dauphin of France (1547-1559, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1559-1560)

 

Henri I (II)

1536-1547

Henry I of Viennois, (1519-1559), son of, also king of France as Henry II, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, Duke of Brittany, ruled the dauphinate as sixteenth Dauphin of France (1536-1547)

Was the first heir of the throne being called Dauphin without being in the posession of the Dauphiné

 

 

Arms of the Dauphin of France, afterwards King Henry II (1547) The shield is quarterly, 1 and 4, quarterly i and iiii, azure three fleurs-de lis or; ii. and iii., or, a dolphin embowed azure, langued, and the gills gules; 2 and 3, quarterly i and iiii, azure three fleurs-de-lis or (France); ii and iii., ermine (Bretagne). The shield which is surmounted by a coronet, is encircled by the collar of the Order of St. Michael, founded by King Louis XI. in 1469. The coat of arms is taken from a MS in the posession of the Bibliotèque de l'Arsenal in Paris (Traité d'Armoiries, by Johann le Ferron of Compiègne, avocat du Parlement, 1520). [9]

 

François III (II)

1547-1559

 

Charles VII of Viennois, (1550-1574), brother of, also king of France as Charles IX, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1560-1574)

 

Henry II of Viennois, (1551-1589), brother of, king of France as Henry III, Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Diois and Valentinois, ruled the dauphinate as king of France (1574-1589)

 

House of Bourbon

 

Louis IV of Viennois, also king of France as Louis XIII

Louis V of Viennois, also king of France as Louis XIV

Louis VI of Viennois le Grand Dauphin

 

Louis IV (XIII)

1601-1610

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

Medal at the occasion of the birth of the Dauphin Louis IV, 1601

 

 

Seal of Louis IV, 1654

Rider, the horseclothes of the arms.

Legend: SIGILLUM LUDOVICI XIII DFI GRACIA FRANCORUM REGIS DELPHINI VIENNENSIS  Æ110 mm. Plaster cast. Arch Nat France sc/St5869

 

Counterseal, 1654

Æ 44 mm. Plaster cast. Arch Nat France sc/St5869

 

Arms: ¼ France and Dauphiné

Supporter: Angel

 

Louis V (XIV)

1638-1643

 

Arms of the Dauphiné 1641.

From: Les Transactions d’Imbert Davphin de Viennois. Paris M.D.C.XLI. Frontispiece

 

Delphinal arms, beginning 17th cent.

Fort d’Exilles (Italy)

 

The arms quarterly crowned with the closed royal Bourbon crown and surrounded by the Collar of the Order of St. Michel

 

Larger achievement of Louis VI as a Dauphin de Vienne

In the Blue Room of he Grenoble Parliament

 

Arms: ¼ France and Dauphiné

Crown: On a helmet affrontée a royal crown of five hoops

Orders: Of St Michel and of Du St Esprit

Supporters: A pair of angels the dexter with a tabbard and a banner of France; the sinister with a tabbard and a banner of the Dauphiné standing on clouds

Mantle: Purpure, lined ermine,fringed Or, vaulted and crested of a sun radiant being the emblem of Louis XIV

Motto: OMNIA IN SOLVS ORBIS FATA RECIT

 

Louis VI le Grand Dauphin

1661-1711

 

Medal at the occasion of the baptism of Louis VI

 

 

Young Louis VI wearing the Delphinal Crown

 

A crown made for de Dauphiné occurs for the first time on this engraving of Louis VI by an unknown artist, represnting him at the arge of 3 or four. The corsn exists of a diadem set with fleurs-de-lis and with two hoops each consisting of dolphins, crested with a three-dimensional fleur-the-lis which was the traditional crest of the House of France. It is not known if the crown really existed and, in that case was destroyed during the French revolution. A new crown of the same design was made at the occasion of the coronation of Charles X

 

The arms of the Dauphin with crown and collars

On the same engraving

 

Arms of Louis VI at the entrance of the Parliament of Grenoble

 

Arms of the Dauphin crowned with the Delphinal crown, collar of the Order of St. Michel

 

Larger Achievement of the Dauphin

On an engraving 1675 ca

 

The arms of the Dauphin crowned with the Delphinal crown, collars of the orders of chivalry, angels for supporters with the banners of France and the Dauphiné and mantle.

 

 

Achievement of the Dauphiné

on an engraving ca. 1700

 

Arms of the Dauphiné, crowned with the Delphinal crown an with a pair of dolphins for supporters

 

Louis VII of Viennois le Petit Dauphin

1711-1712

Louis VII of Viennois, Duke of Burgundy and later Dauphin of France (16 August 1682 – 18 February 1712) was the eldest son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and father of Louis XV. Until he became the official Dauphin of France upon his father's death in 1711, he was known as Le Petit Dauphin to distinguish him from his father, who was known as le Grand Dauphin.

 

Louis VIII of Viennois, also Duke of Brittany

1712

Louis VIII of Viennois, Duke of Brittany, Dauphin of France (8 January 1707 – 8 March 1712), was the first son of Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adélaïde of Savoy.

Eldest surviving son of the Dauphin, he was a fils de France. Louis was born at Versailles to the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy. He was created the Duke of Brittany succeeding his late brother Louis that was the first to hold the title in 200 years. At the time of his birth Louis was the third-in-line heir to his great-grandfather, King Louis XIV, following his father and grandfather, Louis, le Grand Dauphin. He was preceded in birth by an elder brother, also named Louis, who was born in 1704 and died in infancy the following year.

Due to the deaths of his grandfather in 1711 and his father in 1712, he was heir apparent to his great-grandfather as Dauphin of France for three weeks in 1712. Like his parents, he too died of measles and was buried in the Basilica of St Denis. His younger brother became the Dauphin and eventually succeeded as King Louis XV in 1715.

 

Louis IX (XV)

1712-1715

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (Louis le bien aimé), ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five.

 

Louis X

1729-1765

Louis, Dauphin of France (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765) was the only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska. Son of the king, Louis was styled Fils de France. As heir apparent, he became Dauphin of France. However, he died before ascending to the throne. Three of his sons became kings of France: Louis XVI (r: 1774–‘92), Louis XVIII (r.: 1814–‘15; 1815–‘24) and Charles X (r.: 1824–‘30).

 

 

The arms of Louis  X on his monument in the choir of Sens Cathedral

 

Achievement of Louis X

On the stern of Le Dauphin Royal

Model on a scale 1:24 of a ship of 110 cannon built for the instruction of the Dauphin, son of Louis XV.

Workshop of the Models of the Arsenal of Rochefort, 1751 Wood and metal

(Coll.  Musée National de la Marine, Rochefort MnM 11MG 2)

 

Louis XVI

1765-1774

Louis XI of Viennois, also king of France as Louis XVI

 

Arms of Marie Antoinette as a Dauphine de France

 

Louis Dauphin I

Louis XII of Viennois Louis Joseph de France (Louis Joseph Xavier François; 22 October 1781 – 4 June 1789) was the second child and elder son of king Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette. As son of a king of France, he was a Fils de France ("Son of France"), and as the eldest son and heir apparent, he was Dauphin of France, (the twenty-sixth "crown prince" of the Capetian and Bourbon monarchies.)

 

Louis Dauphin II (Louis XVII)

Louis XIII of Viennois, also king of France as Louis XVII

Louis XVII (27 March 1785 in Versailles – 8 June 1795 in Paris), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of France; and from 1791 to 1792 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the younger son of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. As the son of the king, he was a Fils de France (Son of France). His older brother, Louis Joseph, died in June 1789, just a few weeks before the start of the French Revolution.

 

The Province of the Dauphiné disappeared in 1789 with an administrative reorganisation of the kingdom when it was divided into departments

 

Departments in the former Dauphiné since 1789

 

The province was officially abolished with the creation of the departements in 1789. On the territory of the Dauphiné three departements were established:: Isère (capital Grenoble), Drôme (capital: Valence) and Hautes-Alpes (capital: Gap).

 

Nevertheless a coat of arms for the former province of Dauphiné remained in use unofficially. Usually the arms with the dolphin was reproduced. On a 3 franc stamp of 1953 the arms quarterly, designed by the heraldist Robert Louis were printed. He also made a version with the arms quarterly crowned.

 

 

In 1950 arms for the departements were proposed by Robert Louis and Jacques Meurgey de Tupigny on a chart “Marques Symboliques des Departements.” Some but not all of these were adopted by the departments indeed. In the Dauphiné only the arms of Isère were adopted unchanged, the arms of  Drome and Haute Alpes (Of Dauphiné with a base wavy of three pieces Azure and Argent; of Haute Alpes of Dauphiné and two piles in base Azure) not. [10]

Recently however, logo’s came to replace the coats of arms.

 

1953

 

Drôme

 

 

Robert Louis proposal 1950

Adopted arms

 

Present  Logo

 

Hautes Alpes

 

 

Robert Louis proposal 1950

Adopted arms

Present Logo

 

Isère

 

 

 

Adopted Robert Louis arms, 1950

Present Logo

 

Region Rhône-Alpes 1982-2016

 

Flag

 

Rhône-Alpes (in arpitan Rono-Arpes; Occitan: Rose-Aup) was a French region of south-eastern France which included eight departments (Ain, Ardèche, Drôme, Isère, Loire, Rhone, Savoie and Haute Savoie) and the city of Lyon. Its capital was Lyon.

The region was part of the Alps-Mediterranean Euroregion.

As part of a land reform, the Rhône-Alpes region merged with the Auvergne region on 1 January 2016.  The provisional name of the new area is Rhône-Alpes-Auvergne, adopted unanimously on 23 June 2016.

 

Gendarmerie

 

 

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 © Hubert de Vries 2016-10-05

 

 

 



[1] "...dont l'écu du sceau equestre montre enfin le mammifère bien connu; en effet, le dauphin fait son apparition dès 1237 et se retrouve sur les autres sceaux du Viennois." Pinoteau, Hervé: Vingt-cinq ans d'études dynastiques. Eds. Christian. Paris, 1982. 593 pp. figs. , p. 89

[2] Mure, Conrad von: Clipearius Teutonicorum. In: Ganz, P.:L: Geschichte der heraldischen Kunst in der Schweiz im 12. und 13. Jahrh. Frauenfeld 1899. Pp. 175-185

[3] Cibrario, Luigi: Sigilli de’ Principi di Savoia. Torino, 1834.   raccolti da Cibrario e Promis unitamente a Documenti, sigilli e monete appartenenti alla storia della Monarchia di Savoia, 1833           

[4] Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles: The Art of Heraldry. An Encyclopaedia of Armory. Arno Press, 1904 P.. 300)

[5] Ibid p. 301

[6] Google: Sceaux intéressant l'histoire de Lyon et de sa région

[7] Grand Armorial de la Toison d’Or. P.  88 n° 2

[8] Raneke, Jan: Bergshammar Vapenboken - En Medeltidsheraldisk Studie. Lund, 1975 Bergshammar N° 1740

[9] Text from:  Fox-D. Pl. CXXVIII p. 450. Fig. 1

[10] See: Armorial_des_départements_de_France