*1123 ca - †1190







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Short Biography


Frederick I Barbarossa, Hohenstaufen

*1123 ca - †1190

Duke of Swabia 1147-1152

Roman King 1152-1155

King of Germany 1152-1169

Elected Frankfurt 04.03.1152

Crowned Aachen 09.03.1152

Roman Emperor 1155-1190

Crowned Rome, 18.06.1155

King of Italy, crowned Pavia 1159

King of Burgundy, crowned Arles 11.06.1178

Henry VI

King of Rome 1169-1190


Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of Swabia, and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king.

After the death of King Conrad III Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days later, on 9 March 1152

Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, Frederick saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark and began negotiations with the Eastern Roman Emperor, Manuel I Comnenus

Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first, beginning in October 1154 his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and almost immediately began encountering resistance to his authority. Obtaining the submission of Milan, he successfully besieged Tortona in early 1155, razing it to the ground before moving to Pavia where he received the Iron Crown, and with it, the title of King of Italy. Moving through Bologna and Tuscany, he was soon approaching the city of Rome. On 18 June 1155, Hadrian IV crowned Frederick I Roman Emperor at St Peter's Basilica, amidst the acclamations of the German army

After the retreat of Frederick in 1155 Pope Hadrian IV was forced to come to terms with King William I of Sicily, granting to William I territories that Frederick viewed as his dominion. This aggravated Frederick, and he was further displeased when Papal Legates chose to interpret a letter from Hadrian to Frederick in a manner that seemed to imply that the imperial crown was a gift from the Papacy and that in fact the Empire itself was a fief of the Papacy..

In June 1158, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, accompanied by Henry the Lion and his Saxon troops. This expedition resulted in the revolt and capture of Milan, the Diet of Roncaglia that saw the establishment of imperial officers in the cities of northern Italy, and the beginning of the long struggle with Pope Alexander III.

In October 1166, he embarked on his fourth Italian campaign, hoping to secure the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Roman Empress. He began besieging Ancona in 1167, which had acknowledged the authority of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I; at the same time, Frederick's forces achieved a great victory over the Romans at the Battle of Monte Porzio. Heartened by this victory, he lifted the siege of Ancona and went to Rome where he not only had his wife crowned empress, but he also received a second coronation at the hands of Paschal II.

During this period, Frederick decided conflicting claims to various bishoprics, asserted imperial authority over Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary, initiated friendly relations with Manuel I, and tried to come to a better understanding with Henry II of England and Louis VII of France. Many Swabian counts, including his cousin the young Duke of Swabia, Frederick IV, died in 1167, so he was able to organize a new mighty territory in the Duchy of Swabia under his reign in this time. Consequently, his younger son Frederick V became the new Duke of Swabia in 1167, while his eldest son Henry was crowned King of the Romans in 1169, alongside his father who also retained the title.

In 1174, Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy but was opposed by the pro-papal Lombard League (now joined by Venice, Sicily and Constantinople) which had previously formed to stand against him. He was heavy defeated at the Battle of Legnano near Milan, on 29 May 1176, where he was wounded and for some time was believed to be dead. This battle marked the turning point in Frederick's claim to empire.

In a move to consolidate his reign after the disastrous expedition into Italy, he was formally crowned King of Burgundy at Arles on 30 June 1178.

Frederick vowed to take up the cross at the Diet of Mainz in 1188 and embarked on the Third Crusade the next year. However, on 10 June 1190, he drowned in the Saleph river. Being impatient, he had decided to walk his horse through the river instead of crossing the bridge that had been too crowded with troops. The current was too strong for the horse to handle, and his suit armor was too heavy for him to swim in: both were swept away and drowned




After his red beard Frederick I was called Barbarossa  in Italian and Rotbard in German, both meaning Redbeard. On many portraits of him he has indeed a short pointed beard, on coloured pictures of a brownish red like the colour of red-haired people. Even when the portrait itself is of a doubtful likeness, it can be determined as being of him because of the colour of his beard.

Portraits of him are on his seals, in manuscripts and on works of art, the seals dated precisely, the other works dated approximately. Some of his portraits are ascibed to other rulers. A reason for that may be the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1245.

No portraits of him were found from his childhood and from the time he was a Duke of Swabia only.


Roman King



Seal of Majesty: The king, with a short pointed beard, sitting on his throne with lily-sceptre and orb, crowned with a crown of three leaves and pendilia.. L.: X FREDERICVS DEI GRA ROMANOR REX. Date: 1152. ([1])


Roman Emperor


Anticipating his coronation as a Roman Emperor he called himself Romano(rum) Imperator on his seals from 1154/55.


Seal of Majesty: The king, his beard clearly visible, sitting on his throne with lily-sceptre and orb, crowned with a crown of three hoops and pendilia.. L.: X frederic dei gra romanor imperator avg s. Date: 1154/'55  [2]

Golden Bull: The Emperor rising from behind the city-walls of Rome with lily-sceptre, orb and a crown with three hoops, crested with a square cross and with pendilia.  . L.: X frederic dei gra romanorv imperator avg s. D.: 1154/55. [3]


The Frescoes in the SS. Quattro Coronati,

Oratorio di San Silvestro. Rome.


This church was consecrated during the papacy of  Paschalius II (1099-1118). The frescoes in the interior are usually dated in the first half of the 13th century (1246) and the main characters are identified as Emperor Constantine the Great (307-337) and Pope Silvester (314-335).

There are however, reasons to believe that in fact the events around the coronation of Frederick Barbarossa are depicted. These would have been painted shortly after his coronationin 1155  and were ‘adapted’ in 1246 after the excommunication and deposition of his grandson Frederick II in 1245.

The accepted story of the coronation is as follows. [4]


In 1155, on his way to Rome and expecting to be crowned, Frederick made his camp along the Via Cassia. On 9 June Pope Hadrian joined him in the assumption that Frederick would do him the strator-service (holding his stirrup). Frederick refused this categorically and the Pope, confronted with this refusal, dismounted an took place on a throne. Frederick then ran towards him, threw himself at his feet and desired to have the traditional kiss of peace. Hadrian however explained that he could not give it when Frederick had not paid him homage in the traditional way.

The next day the matter was negotiated.

On 11 June the ceremony, agreed by princes and cardinals, took place not far away from Nepi  (about 25 km from Sutri where the Pope had retired). Frederick advanced a little bit with his army. When the Pope came towards him he dismounted when he caught him in sight, and led the ambler of the Pope in full view of the entire army for a stone’s throw at the rein, holding firmly the stirrup. Thereupon the Pope gave him the kiss of peace.

After some deliberations with Hadrian it was agreed that a garrison would be send to Rome to be prepared to counter if there was by chance a revolt of the Roman people against the coronation. It encamped in the night from 17 to 18 June in the Monastery of St. Peter and its surroundings. On Saturday the Pope, together with the cardinals entered the city, followed by Frederick and his suite.

On the steps of the St. Peter Frederick undressed and put on his coronation robes. The then went to the Church of St Mary in Turri, near the steps, where the Pope resided. Frederick knelt before him, laid his hand in the hand of the Pope and took the coronation oath publicly, amongst others comprising the promise that he would always be a servant of the church.      

Thereupon the Pope, followed by the king and his suite, went in festive procession to the altar of St Peter. At the Silver Gate of the church cardinal-bishop Albano said the first prayer for Frederick. The cardinal-bishop of Porta said the second prayer at the rota. Thereupon the cardinal-bishop of Ostia anointed his right arm and neck and said the third prayer. Then the holy mass was celebrated, the epistle was read and the graduale sung. After that the king approached the Pope and received the imperial insignia: a sword, a sceptre and the crown which was put on his head by the Pope himself. [5]


The frescoes of the SS. Quattro Coronati tell a slightly different story.


No doubt the principal persons on the frescoes represent Frederick Barbarossa and Hadrian IV. A difficulty is that all persons on the frescoes have, due to the abilities of the artist, about the same features. [6] However, Hadrian has a grey beard and moustache and has a papal tiara or mitre on his head. Barbarossa indeed, has a red beard and is dressed in official robes, sometimes completed with a crown. 



The portraits of Hadrain IV are to be compared with the statue of a pope in the porch of the southern transept of Chartres Cathedral (1210) which has the same beard and mitre.


The portraits of Barbarossa may be compared with other portraits of him given in this article.


On the northern wall of the nave there are some introductory frescoes which give an account of the journey of Frederick to the Holy Land (figuring there Constantine and Helena (her crown added later)). The most important event depicted is the overthrowing of the Golden Calf. Following is a scene of the three crosses on Golgotha. The next scene has disappeared.

The scenes of the coronation events are on the eastern and southern wall.



1. On the first fresco of the coronation series a king in purple robes is sitting on a throne and speaking to an assembled crowd of women, children and an old man. The king has a crown with a single plate in front  which is of the model of the crowns of the Byzantine Emperors from the House of Dukas (1059-’81) and resembling the crown of King Roger II of Sicily (1130-’54). 

Behind him are three men who play a role in the next scenes. For two of these men Welf VI (uncle of Frederick) duke of Tuscany and margrave of Spoleto and Conrad (half-brother of Frederick) Count Palatine of Lorraine (*1134/’36-†1195) are proposed.

The face and hands of the king are marked with pox, a disease of which Constantine the Great was supposed to have suffered. These marks were probably added in 1246.



2. An imperially crowned ruler lays on his bed. In front of him are Pope Hadrian and another prelate. This scene depicts Hadrian on an audience of Frederick at his camp along the Via Cassia, but no reference is made to Frederick refusing to hold the stirrup of the Pope.

In this scene Frederick presents himself as an Emperor in his own right, which, in that case, had only to be confirmed formally by the Pope. This corresponds with the Imperial title on the seals of Frederick which are dated 1154/’55. It must not have been to the liking of Pope Hadrian who considered himself the instance from which Frederick should receive his imperial office.

The next scenes tack between the two opinions in that the emperor only shows himself to the Pope uncrowned or royally crowned.



3. Frederik Barbarossa and his companions on their way. The emperor himself is dessed in a green tunica and a purple cloak but not in his imperial robes and not crowned. His first companion is dressed in a purple tunica and a green cloak and is probably his brother Conrad the Count Palatine. His second companion is in a green tunica and a red cloak. This scene corresponds with the visit of Frederick to Hadrian in Sutri.



4. The three men have dismounted and are kneeling before Hadrian IV to negotiate. Hadrian is assisted by two monks. No mention is made of any ceremony in Nepi.



5. Within the walls of Rome, Frederick Barbarossa, who had arrived there on Saturday, dressed in imperial robes and with the royal crown of the first scene on his head, pays homage to the portraits of St. Peter and Paul, the patrons of the Holy See, kept up by Hadrian. His two companions are also dressed in official robes and are crowned with a ducal cap. The assistants of the Pope are dressed in white.


In this scene Frederick pays homage to the church, and certainly not to the Pope. It indeed is a ceremony but no stirrup is held and no peace kiss is given.



6. Frederik Barbarossa takes a ritual bath and is blessed by Hadrian. His tunica and royal crown (of the first scene) are held by his companions. This scene corresponds with the scene on the steps of St. Peter.



7. Frederick hands over the papal phrygium and the ombrellino to Hadrian who has a mitre on his head. With his left hand he leads the ambler of the Pope which is attended by another man of his suite. On the walls of Rome a bearded man carries the imperial crown, ready to be used for the imperial coronation.

The ombrellino is of yellow and red lengths. The phrygium is a cone shaped cap with a golden diadem. It is a version of a ducal hat and corresponds with the administrative rank of the Pope.


8. Frederick Barbarossa, imperially crowned and dressed in his purple cloak and tunica as in the second scene, leads the ambler of the pope in full ceremonial dress with phrygium and ombrellino (but without the halo around his head) by the rein. He is accompanied by men of his suite carrying the sword and sceptre of the imperial insignia.

Still, however there is no trace of the strator-service.

This scene depicts the events after the coronation when the Pope and the Emperor went in festive procession to St. Peter where prayers were said and mass was celebrated.


The crowns on these frescoes differ from the crowns on the seals which consist of a diadem with pendilia,  set with three groups of three pearls and with three hoops, crested with a square cross.  This type of crown was abandoned in 1154/’55.


Royal Crown

Scene 1, 5, 6. 

Imperial Crown

Scene 2, 7, 8


Later Portraits


Frederick Barbarossa on his throne

Miniature in the Exultation roll of Montecassino (1170-’90) [7]

Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Barb.Lat. 592, fragment 5c (detail).


Frederick on his throne dressed in a blue cloak, a red tunica and a white alba. In his hand a lily-sceptre an on his head a crown. The crown of a somewhat deviant model in comparison with the crown before.

On his left side a man with a falcon on his hand, probably his younger half-brother Conrad, Count Palatine of Lorraine from 1156. Conrad has a phrygium set with precious stones which distinguishes him from the men behind him.


Emperor Frederick Barbarossa

 and his son Henry VI.

Stained window in Straatsburg Cathedral.

End of 12th century. (Photo H.d.V. 2010)


Æ The legend FRIDERICUS IMPERATOR around the head of an other king in Straatsburg

Reliquiary for the skull of St. Maurice, 1180 ca. (Galvanoplastic copy)

The original of chased, punctilated and gilded silver. H.: 17,5 cm  (Remounted in a new silver bust, 1668).

Bodensee region, ca. 1180. Zürich, Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Inv. Nr. Dep 494. [8]


So-called “Cappenberger Barbarossakopf” [9]


This bust is by far the worst portrait of Fredrick Barbarossa. In particular the little curls of his hair and beard and the shape of his nose, moustache and mouth differ from those on other portraits.

Nevertheseless it was presented by his godfather Otto von Cappenberg as the ‘capud argenteum ad imperatoris fornatem effigiem


1180 ca Portrait of Frederick Barbarossa (Fridericvs imperator)

and his sons King Henry VI (*1165) (Heinricus Rex) and duke Frederick V of Swabia (*1167) (Fridericus Dux).

Legend: In medio plas residet pater imperialis (In the middle is the imperial father)

 Welfenchronik, Altdorf  (= Weingarten, Kreis Ravensburg), Hessische Landesbibliothek Fulda, Cod. D 11, fol 14.


The Emperor in a blue cloak and red tunoica, with secpeter and orb and crowned with a crown of three points. Henry VI with a royal crown and Frederick with a ducal crown, both in a red cloak lined with vair. 

Frederick Barbarossa and his son and halfbrother

Stained glass from the apse of the Minster of Straatsburg. 208Í100 cm

Straßburg, Frauenhausmuseum, Inv. MAD Nr. XLV. 12.


The emperor dressed in a red cloak and blue tunica, with lily-sceptre and globe. On his head a crown with three plates enamelled green, blue and green. Around his head a red halo. 

Until very recently it was thought that the emperor portrayed on this stained window was Charlemagne between his paladins Roland and Olivier. There can be no doubt however that Frederick Barbarossa is portrayed and that it even is one of the best portraits of him. His companions on this window date from the early and late 14th century. In 1855 the window was in the eastern wall of the southern transept. It was removed then and lost for a long time. In 1933 it was discovered and given to the Frauenhausmuseum.

Long and complicated theories were invented about the who and why of this window for example by F. Zschokke, who was an important student of the Straatsburg windows. He however, for some reason, did not see that the window was in fact a representation of Fredrick Barbarossa. [10]




In the timeof Frederick I several princes charged their shield with badge of rank like a lion or an eagle. These and other badges of rank and/or distinction came from a much older repertory of heraldic symbols which consisted of for example eagles, griffins and lions but also of bulls, dragons and dolphins. Probably the charging of the shield with such symbols was granted as a favour by Frederick to strengthen the ties between him and his vassals. In that sense it was comparable with the granting of membership of the later Orders of Chivalry like the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Fleece.

Early Princes distinguished with such a shield were for example Henry the Lion of Saxony (1154), Ottokar of Steiermark (1160),  Philip of Flanders (1162), Albrecht of Brandenburg (1170), Geoffrey III of Brabant (1183) and Berchthold of Zähringen (1187).

He himself also charged his shield with a badge of rank. Known are his shields with eagles and crosses.


The First Shield of Frederick Barbarossa



Bracteate of Frederick I, the Great. [11]

The emperor on horseback with banner and shield. Above his horse a fleur de lys.

Unreadable legend


The shield is triangular the upper angles round. The wide bordure and the small heraldic figure date the shield quite early in the 12th century and for that reason the bracteate could also have been of Conrad III (1138-’52). The shield of Henry Jasomirgott for example, dated 1156, has an eagle filling the field completely.


On his shield an eagle guardant which is very uncommon. It corresponds with the golden eagle guardant on the floor of the San Marco in Venice which is supposed to be the emblem of the Roman King.

Deze adelaar komt overeen met de titel van koning, hetzij koning van Duitsland hetzij Rooms koning. Hij is te vergelijken met de adelaar op het schild van Hendrik Jasomirgott van Oostenrijk op zijn zegel uit 1156 en dateert dus zeker uit ongeveer dezelfde tijd.

Another bracteate of Frederick I

The emperor on horseback  with banner and shield. [12]


On the shield a thunderbolt or an eagle (?). Legend: fridericvs imperator mvhlehvsigensis denariiv.


The Second Shield of Frederick I


Penny with eagle surrounded by lions passant guardant. [13]

This penny may have been struck  at the occasion of the coronation of  Frederick in 1152


Germany consisted at the time of five duchies: Swabia, Franconia, Saxony, Upper-Lorraine and Lower-Lorraine. The lions may have been the emblems of their dukes.


Penny of Frederik I struck in Maastricht, 1180 ca. [14]

Shield with eagle and legend: scutum imperatoris


This time the eagle is looking to the dexter an correspondes with the black eagle on the floor of the San Marco in Venice which is supposed to be the emblem of the German King. Because the eagle of Venice is on a white background, the arms were probably Argent, an eagle Sable. These arms were also borne by his son Henry VI. 


The Third Shield of Frederick I Barbarossa.

Bracteate of Emperor Frederick I.

The Emperor on horseback with a triangular shield charged with a square cross. [15]


Third shield of Frederick I Barbarossa.

Colours and date unknown.

The shield is triangular with an wide decorated bordure. The square cross is the symbol of administrative authority. It corresponds with the vexillum of the Roman Empire but also with the banners of 12th century Byzantine Empire which were red, charged with a yellow square cross. The arms may have a relation with the imperial ambitions of Frederick which he had to give up after his fifth Italian Campaing and the Treaty of Venice (1177).

Shields charged with a square cross were not unique in the time of Fredrick I. In the 11th century such a shield was borne by William the Conqueror and in the beginning of the 12th century by Charles the Good of Flanders (1119-’27). Also the Byantine Varanger Guard of John II (1118-’43) bore shields with a square cross. Crusaders however, bore shield with a latin cross.


The Fourth Shield of Frederik Barbarossa


The 3rd Crusade was commanded by Frederick 1 and was an initiative of Pope Clemens III (1187-1191). Frederick departed in May 1189 and traveled through Hungary and by way of Constantinople. He drowned when crossing the river Saleph in Asia Minor on 10 June 1190.

As a crusader he is depicted by his biographer Robert de St. Remi. On the scene where he is presenting the manuscript to the Frederick  I the emperor is dressed in a white tunica and a yellow cloa1k, lined with vair. On his cloak there is a large latin cross embroidered of gold. Behind him is a shield with a large golden latin cross. 


Frederick Barbarossa as a Crusader

Robert de St. Remi: Historia Hierosolymitana. 1189 ca

(Cod. Vat. Lat. 2001, Biblioteca Vaticana, Rome).




Fourth Shield

Argent, a latin cross Or.

Daarnaast is hij ook afgebeeld in het manuscript van Petrus van Ebulo waarin een vaandel voorkomt met een  gouden latijns kruis op een wit veld.


Frederick Barbarossa riding to the Holy Land

Legend: Fredericus fortissimus imperator cum innumera procerum multitudine domum Domini redempturus accelerat. [16]


On this folio which has very much lost colour, the Emperor is crowned and has a golden square cross on his right shoulder (added or gilded later). Behind him is his fighting unit with latin crosses for helmet badges, and with a larger and a smaller banner also with latin crosses. These may have been white with a yellow or a red cross but this cannot be established with certainty.



A white banner with a red latin cross

is the banner of the Ecclesia


Frederick Barbarossa is drowned in the River Saleph.

His soul in the shape of a swaddled baby is brought to heaven by an angel. [17]



Emperor Henry VI



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© Hubert de Vries 2012-12-18


[1] Die Zeit der Staufer, Stuttgart 1977. N°  28

[2] Die Zeit, nº 30

[3] Die Zeit n°  31

[4] Die gemäßigte kaiserliche Richtung, die eine Gleichordnung der beiden Gewalten anerkannte, wie sie auch der Sachsenspiegel annimmt (Ldr. I), hat dem Papste gewisse Ehrenvorrechte eingeräumt, so den Anspruch auf den Fußkuß (Proskynese) sowie den Zügfel- und Bügeldienst (Marschalldienst, officum stratoris et strepæ, Führen des Pferdes am Zügel auf Steinwurf- oder Pfeilschußweite, Festhalten des Steigbügels beim Auf- und Absitzen des Reiters), der erstmalig von Pippin im Jahre 754 Papst Stephan II. geleistet worden war, und den die Kurie seit dem 12. Jahrhundert als herkömmlich vom Kaiser forderte. Dieser sog. Marschalldienst konnte in lehnrechtlichem Sinne gedeutet werden, zumal nach deutschem Lehnrecht das Halten des Steigbügels des Lehnsherrn durch den Vasallen zu dessen lehnrechtlichen Obliegenheiten gehörte (Ssp. Lehnr. art 66 § 5), und überdies die führenden Kanonisten des 13. Jahrhunderts den Kaiser als Vasallen des Papstes ansahen. Deshalb hatte wohl auch Friedrich I. Barbarossa bei seiner Begegnung mit Papst Hadrian IV. in Sutri im Jahre 1155 zunächst verweigert, dem Papste außer dem Fußkuß auch den Zügel- und Bügeldienst zu erweisen. Auf grund eines Spruches des königlichen Hofgerichtes leistete Friedrich Barbarossa beide Dienste nachträglich. Demgemäß ließ sich der Papst im Frieden von Venedig 1177 vom Kaiser vertraglich zusichern, daß der Kaiser dem Papste den geschuldeten Ehrendienst leisten werde wie er herkömmlich von seinen Vorgängern den Päpsten geleistet worden sei (c. 1. MGHConst. I. 362). Der Bügeldienst des Kaisers gegenüber dem Papste hat im Sachsenspiegel Anerkennung gefunden, ohne daß dabei auf die lehnrechtliche Bedeutung des Dienstes Bezug genommen wird (Ldr. I. 1).

[5]  Simonsfeld, Henry: Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reiches unter Friedrich I. Leipzig, 1908. Pp. 269-341.

[6] This artist was probably Albert Sotio workimg in Spoleto in the 2nd half of the 12th century. A fresco of him from the SS. Giovanni e Paolo in Spoleto shows the saints or rulers having almost identical features. 

[7] Usually dated 1075-1090 (!)

[8] Die Zeit, Nr. 594, Abb. 409. Die Andechs-Meranier in Franken. Bamberg/ Mainz, 1998. Kat. 4.37, Abb. 304. (+ bibliography.)

[9] Die Zeit, Nr. 535 abb. 324. Explanation by Hermann Fillitz, T. I, pp. 393-394. Abb 409, 497.

[10] Zscholle, F. Un Vitrail de la cathédrale romane de Stasbourg, retrouvé en 1933. In: Archives alsaciennes de l’art 14, 1935, pp. 159-164. The aricle about the window in Die Zeit der Staufer (II Abb. 210 Kat. nº  408) is mainly based on his articles.

[11] From:  Schramm, P.E.: Die deutschen Kaiser und Könige in Bildern ihrer Zeit, 751-1190. 1928/1983. P. 263, 465 Abb. 23. Münzstätte  Mühlhausen. Pfennig, Buchenau 38. Berlin, Münzkabinett der Staatliche Museen.

[12] Die Zeit: KS Friedrich I. 1152-’90 Gotha 42 0,87 g smm aus Fd. Gotha. Abb. 104.2.

[13] Die Zeit: 206.39 KS Friedrich I 1152-'90 O.114 0,84 g WLMS MK 1951/503 Neurenberg Abb. 124.10.

[14] Suhle, A.: Deutsche Münz- und Geldgeschichte.  p. 119 en Abb. 187.

[15] Die Zeit: 188.29. KS Friedrich I 1152-'90 Seega 58 0,87 g SMM acc. 60708 aus Fd Seega Abb. 104.3 On the shield of the emperor a cross. Probably a "Kreuzzugspfennig". The legend unreadable.

[16] Ebulo, Petrus de: Liber ad Honorem Augusti  sive de rebus Siculis. Codex 120 II der Burgerbibliothek Bern, fol. 107.

[17] Ibid.