For a long time Lampung was a part of Banten Sultanate but it was annexed by the Dutch in 1752. Since then it was under direct Dutch rule and was known under the name of Residentie Lampoengse Districten.
Under direct Dutch rule the political symbols of the V.O.C. and the Kingdom of the Netherlands were valid in Lampung.
A specific heraldic emblem for the Lampungs is known from the twenties of the 20th century.
The achievement of the Residentie Lampoengse Districten was:
Arms: Per fess the first Azure a mountain Vert topped with a rising sun radiant, in base Azure three bars wavy Argent, sailing on the first a sailing vessel Or.
Crown: A mural crown of five towers
Supporters: Two lions Or, langued and unguled Gules
Motto: OOSTHAVEN (Eastport)
The mountain probably is Mount Tanggamus (2102 m), the sailing vessel and the sea refer to Strait Sunda.
The present emblem of Lampung Province is:
Emblem: A payung per pale, ist pole Argent its screen Or, and a payan (spear) and a laduk (sword) in saltire Argent charged with a gong Or.
Crown: A traditional crown called Siger
Garland: Of pepper leaves and berries proper
Motto: SANG BUMI RUWA JURAI in lampung and latin script.
Backshield: Tierced per pale Vert, Chocolate and Azure.
ð See ilustration in the head of this essay
The emblem is very extensively explained in the decree of which the translation reads:
PENJELASAN TENTANG ISI DAN ARTI
LAMBANG DAERAH PROPINSI LAMPUNG
SAN BUMI RUWA JURAL
Peraturan Daerah Propinsi Lampung No. 01/Perda/I/dprd/71-72
I. The Shield.
1. The Five-pointed Shield.
The capacity to maintain the aspiration to develop a bi-elemental society in obtaining prosperity and justice based on the pancasila as the five main principles of the republic of indonesia.
2. The Basic Colours of the Shield.
a. Green: shows the fertile highlands suitable for the cultivation of primary and seasonal crops.
b. Brown: shows the fertile lowlands suitable for dry and wet ricefields (sawahs)
c. Blue: shows the vast richness of river and sea as the means of subsistence for fisher-men.
3. Colour of the Shield’s Brim.
Gold: shows the ambition of the People to develop their Province and Country.
II. The “SANG BUMI RUW JURAT” ribbon.
1. Shape of the Ribbon.
a. Viewed from underneath, it repreesents a gateway to fertile and prosperous Lampung
b. Viewed from above, it represents the possibilities to open up new land with the cultivation of pepper and rice as the basic forms of agriculture, performed by a culture conscious society.
2. Colours of the Ribbon.
a. Pure white: being the symbol of the People’s purity and sincerity.
b. White: reflects the People’s hospitality in receiving their honoured guests.
3. Meaning of the Writings.
a. Sang Bumi: a spacious distinguished house with numerous rooms.
b. Ruwa Jurai: the two groups of Lampung’s inhabitants that make out a complete society.
4. Ruwa Jurai also means:
a. Linguistic culturally: consists of two elements of descent, divided into:
1. People as part of the society making use of a dialect with an “o”sound.
2. People as part of the society making use of a dialect with an “a” sound.
b. Sociologically: consists of two groups making out Lampung’s contemporary society:
1. The native Lampung People.
2. The new settlers as the result of internal migrations.
III. “Lampung” as written in her specific characters
1. “Lampung” is pronounced “Lampoong”.
2. Origin of the word: lampung.
a. Legendary origin: it originated from the name of the ancestor si lampung, a descendant of the God senembahan and eidodari sinuhun. The latter was said to be related to si jawa, queen of Mojopahit, and to si pasundayang, Queen of Pejajaran. Si lampung was herself Queen of balau.
b. Linguistic Origin: It was derived from the word tolang p’ohwang (Tulangbawang), a kingdom in this region during the period of the Han Dynasty. The word is a result of the combination of the terms to (meaning: People) and lang p’ohwang (meaning altogether lampung)
IV. Pepper leaves and berries
1. There are a number of 17 Pepper leaves and 8 Pepper berries.
2. Pepper has been Lampung’s main produce since long ago where it has been known by Asian Nations since the 7th century and by Western Nations since the 15th century.
3. A number of 64 Pepper seeds show the year 1964 as the year of the foundation of the Province of Lampung.
V. A stalk of rice
1. There are also a number of 45 rice grains.
2. Rice has been the new settlers’ main product of cultivation since the beginning of the 20th century (1905). Pepper and Rice as Lampung’s main produce have established a relationship between the 2 groups of inhabitants through the years up to the Proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia and until now, based on the principles of mutual help and harmony.
1. A multi-purpose long knife used by the People.
2. The knife can be used either as a farming tool or a household utensil as well as a weapon for self-defense.
1. The traditional spear as a family heirloom.
2. It is the symbol of heroism, a weapon to defend the family’s honour and to guard the country from enemy’s threat.
1. Colour: brass.
2. Meaning: the symbol of grandeur of the traditional arts and culture.
a. As a leading musical instrument.
b. As a signal to start a work of great importance.
4. Circular form of the Gung:
a. Outer circle reflecting the original bi-elemental society.
b. Inner circle reflecting the efforts of the leading group (the Government) to tighten the existing cooperation between leader and people.
1. Colour: Gold.
2. Meaning: as a head-dress, the crown is the symbol of distinctive tradition and culture, as well as of respectable life.
3. Shape -
a. The 9 curves on the Siger represent Lampung’s 9 rivers:
1. The Way Semangka
2. The Way Sekampung
3. The Way Seputih
4. The Way Pengubuan
5. The Way Abung-Rarem
6. The Way Sungkai
7. The Way Kanan
8. The Way Tulangbawan
9. The Way Mesuji
b. The Siger includes 4 Melati flowers, each of which having 4 petals with 5 wrappers.
All of these mean:
The 4 Melati flowers: the 4 clans originating from Sekala Berak:
1. Umpu Perenong
2. Umpu Belunguh
3. Umpu Belajan di Way
4. Umpu Nyerupa
The 5 wrappers: after the growth and resettlement of the population throughout Lampung, 5 duchies were established, respectively being put under control of:
1. Ratu di Puncak
2. Ratu Pemanghgilan
3. Ratu di Pugung.
4. Ratu di Balau
5. Ratu Darah Putih
The Petals of the Skala flower found on top of the Siger (crown) have their tips touching the umbrella pole. The Skala flower shoots out of its 4 petals found at the base of its stem.
The meaning of these all is as follows:
The shooting out of the 4 petals represents the 4 clans originating from Sekala Berak, personified by the “Paksi Pak” (the 4 Heads of the Clans), with the “Pi-il Pesenggiri” as their way of life.
The 5-petalled Skjala flower indicated that the “Pi-il Pesenggiri “ as a way-of-life is based on 5 principles:
1. Pi-il Pesenggiri
- Pi-il means broad-minded
- Pesenggiri means dignity
2. Juluk Adek
- Juluk means pre-marital title
- Adek means post-marital title
3. Nemui Nyimah
- Nemui means hospitality
- Nyimah means generosity
4. Nengah Nyappur
- Nengah means familiarity
- Nyappur means sociable
5. Sakai Sambaian
- Sakai means helpful
- Sambaian means cooperative
X. Payung (umbrella)
1. Colour - Cream
2. Parts of the Umbrella:
a number of 17 spokes
a number of 8 joints on the brim
a number of 19 lines dividing the joints
a number of 45 fringes
a.. As an umbrella of honour, symbolizing the Republic of Indonesia, proclaimed on August 17, 1945.
b. Symbolizing the Province of Lampung as a shelter place for all ethnological groups in the society.
4. The Pole and its rounded top -
a. The Pole indicates that there is one ideal in common.
b. The rounded top represents Divine Authority.
Interpretations: There is one ideal in common, i.e. to build up the Nation and to develop the Country with the Blessings of God the Almighty.
XI. Conclusions on the meaning of “sang bumi ruwa jurai”.
Lampung is the settlement of “Ruwa Juari”,
The home of a bi-elemental society,
Living on plains, mountains and seas,
Producing pepper and rice as their means of subsistence,
Where people work together to build up their country,
And to defend her with the available weapons,
To realize the glorious goals of Pancasila,
Behind the shield of the Republic of Indonesia.
Today Lampung is controlled by TNI
© Hubert de Vries 2010-11-29