ESTADOS MEXICANOS

Mo-Za

 

Ag-Mi

morelos

nayarit

nuevo leon

oaxaca

puebla

queretaro

quintana roo

san luis potosi

sinaloa

sonora

tabasco

tamaulipas

tlaxcala

veracruz

yucatán

zacatecas

 

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Morelos

 

Arms: A maize plant growing on a hill, proper, in chief a fivepointed star Or and the motto TIERRA Y LIBERTAD on a listel Argent

Motto: LA TIERRA VOLVERA A QUIENES LA TRABAJAN CON SUS MANOS (The Soil returns to Him who cultivates it with his Hands), on a white bordure around the shield.

 

Nayarit

 

 

 

In 1928 the the then Governor ad interim Gen. Esteban Baca Calderon charged the famous painter Diego Rivera to make a design for a coat of arms of Nayarit. The result was a highly original coat of arms that can hardly be described in heraldic terminology that would read about:

 

The arms of 1928

 

Arms: Argent, a bordure indented of twelve points parted of black and grey; and a grey fess below a chief embattled of six black pieces and a black escutcheon a grey disc charged with four white U per cross, in dexter chief a yellow sun and in sinister chief a white crescent, in base a light and dark grey cup; and a bordure indented and counterindented of 23 pieces per fess yellow and purple; all within a narrow orange bordure.

 

Soon, in 1930, the Rivero arms were abandoned and replaced by another one ordered by C. Luis Castillo Ledon, 4th Constitutional Governor. It was:

 

The arms of 1930

 

Arms: Tierced per point arched: 1. Gules, a maize-plant with its cobs Or; 2. Or, an arrow and bow per pale proper; 3. Azure, the mountain-range of the Sangangüey Volcano Argent; and on an escucheon Azure, a bend Gules coticed Or.

Frame:  Vert, Or and Gules

 

The maize-plant is called Tepitl in the region and ripens in fifty days. It refers to the city of Tepic.

The arrow and bow refers to king Nayarit, founder of the kingdom of Huaica or Xicora, legislator, God of war and inventor of the bow-and-arrow.

 

In 1970 the arms were changed by Lic. Roberto Gomez Reyes, 12th Constitutional Governor by replacing the escutchon. The new escutcheon was:

 

The arms of 1970

 

Arms: Azure, two kettles chequy Gules and Or, with their vegetables Vert; within a bordure Ermine of eight tails.

 

The arms were changed for the last time in 1993 by Lic. Celso Humberto Delgado Ramirez, 15th Constitutional Governor, by decree n° 7633, published in the Periódico Oficial n° 13 T. CLIV. dd. 14.08.1993.

Again the change was only about the escutcheon. This became:

 

Arms: Purpure, the stone-carving of the ‘Eagle of Aztlán’ or the ‘Garza Eagle’ in the act of devouring a serpent Argent; and a bordure Argent charged with seven footsteps Sable.

 

Æ See illustration nin the head of this section.

 

The eagle of Aztlán is in the legend about the foundation of the Aztec Empire.  A stone, representing such an eagle is in the National Museum of Antropology and History.

 

 

The seven footsteps symbolize the seven tribes who, according to the Codex Boturini, came from Aztlan to Greater Tenochtitlan.


Nuevo León

 

 

Initially the State of Nuevo Leon, not having a coat of arms of its own, used the arms of its capital Monterrey. This was granted by Queen Mary of Austria who charged D. Nicolás de Azcárraga, Knight of the Order of Santiago and governor of the New Kingdom of León on 9 May 1672 to create a coat of arms for Monterrey. It was:

 

Arms: A landscape with an indian spanning his bow and a rising sun over a mountain-range in the distance, all proper.

Crown: Of a count

Supporters: Two indians with their headdresses and bows and arrows, six flags in saltire and two cannon, two drums and two piles of cannonballs

 

On 30 October 1899 the crown was replaced by a cap of liberty.

 

On 8 May 1944 the crown of a count was restored and on 14 November 2007 the original arms of 1672 were restored entirely.

 

By decree N° 72 of 2 June 1943 published in the Periódico Oficial No. 47, of 3 June 1943, the state of Nuevo Leon received a coat of arms of its own.

It was created by a commission consisting of Santiago Roel, Carlos Pérez Maldonado, José P. Saldaña and Héctor González. The arms are:

 

Arms: Quarterly: 1. A landscape with an orange-tree and a sun rising over the Silla mountain-range in the distance; 2. Argent, a lion rampant Gules gules unguled, langued and crowned Or (León); 3. The destroyed church of St. Franciscus proper; 4. Or, five smoking chimneys Sable. Within a bordure Azure: in chief six bees Or; a bow between 2Î3 arrows in saltire on the dexter, and a cannon between two rifles in chief and a sword between two halberds in base on the sinister Argent; and the name ESTADO DE NUEVO LEON Or in base. And an escutcheon Argent, a chain per bordure and a bend Sable (Zúñiga).

Crest: A spanish grilled helmet to the dexter proper.

Motto: On a ribbon of the national colors SEMPER ASCENDENS (Always Rising)

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section

 

  • The landscape symbolizes Nuevo Leon territory
  • The lion refers to the spanish kingdom of Leon
  • The church symbolizes the beginning of (spanish-) culture in the region
  • The chimneys symbolize industry
  • The Zúñiga arms are for D. Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, 9th Viceroy of New Spain (1595-1603) and Count of Monterrey, the capital of Nuevo Leon.

 

The arms should reflect force, diligence, progress, goodness and appreciation for the protagonists of the state

The arms were painted by the artist D. Ignacio Martínez Rendón and can be found in the Palace of the Governent.

 

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Oaxaca

 

The arms of the city of Anteguera, later Oaxaca were granted by King Charles I on 25 April 1532. They are:

Arms: Argent, a lion rampant Gules, crowned Or, within a bordure Azure, eight crosses saltire Or.

 

Arms of Oaxaca

Town hall of Oaxaca City

 

Crowned arms on a medal at the occasion of the accession of Ferdinand VII, 1808

 

The present arms of the State of Oaxaca was designed by D. Alfredo Canseco Feraud by order of Governor Eduardo Vasconcelos (1949-’50). They are:

        

 

Arms: Per pale: 1. Or, the Aztec hieroglyph for Huayacac (= Oaxaca); 2. Azure, the sinister half of a

Mitla-palace issuant proper and the emblem of the Dominican Order on the sinister. And a base Gules, two hands breaking the fetters of slavery Argent.

Crest: The National Emblem of Mexico (1934/1968).

Motto: EL RESPETO AL DERECHO AJENO ES LA PAZ (Respect for the Right of the Other is Peace)

Compartment: A banner hanging, its upper end rolled up, Gules, charged with seven five-pointed stars Argent, and a white scroll in base inscribed: ESTADO LIBRE Y SOBERANO DE OAXACA.

 

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Puebla

 

 

 

 

Arms of Puebla City

Arms of Puebla State

 

The first arms of Puebla state were the arms granted to the city of Puebla de los Angeles by royal warrant of King Charles I (V) and his mother Joanna on 20 July 1538. They are:

 

Arms: Azure, an island Vert and a city of five towers Or, its outer towers supported by two hovering angels, vested white, winged Or; in chief the letters . K . V.  Or and a base barry wavy of six pieces Argent and Azure.

Motto:  ANGELIS SUIS DEUS MANDANT DE UT CUSTODIANT TE IN OMNIBUS VI IS TUIS, (God has commanded his angels to guard all your courses) on a bordure Purpure around the shield.

 

The present arms of the State of Puebla are:

 

Arms: Quarterly: 1. Textile works proper; 2. The Necaxa weir proper; 3. Argent a flame Gules and a lower arm issuant vested Azure, in its hand a rifle proper; 4. Tehuacán valley, the sky above Azure, the land Or, the field Vert, and a naked lower arm, a maize shoot in its hand, per bend sinister issuant from the sinister, proper. And an escutcheon of the arms of the city of Puebla, charged with a label Argent inscribed 5 MAYO 1862

Crest: The Citlaltépetl or Pico de Orizaba, the Popocatépetl, the Iztaccíhuatl and the Matlacuéitl or Malinche mountains

Supporters: The mask of the rain-god Tlaloc in chief between two feathered serpents representing Quetzalcóatl, footprints on their bodies their tails ending in maize-cobs

Motto: UNIDOS EN EL TIEMPO, EN EL ESFUERZO, EN LA JUSTICIA Y EN LA ESPERANZA. (United in Time, in Force, in Justice and in Hope) on a white bordure around the shield

Title: ESTADO LIBRE Y SOBERANO DE PUEBLA in black lettering on a yellow listel in base.

 

 

Querétaro

 

The first coat of arms of the city of Queretaro was granted by Philip IV on 25 of January 1656. It is:

 

Arms: Per fess, the base per pale: 1. Azure, a sun radiant serving as a socle for a latin cross flesh-color between two stars Argent; 2. Azure, St. James on horseback armed proper; 3. Azure, some stalks of grain and a tree fructed proper.

 

By royal warrant of 29 September 1712 the crowned royal arms of Castile and Leon were added above the shield and the whole was surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Fleece.

Like this:

In the time of king Charles III (1759-’88) the royal arms above the shield were changed into the new royal arms being:

 

Arms:  1/3:  I: 1|4 of Aragon, Sicily-Trinacria, Lower Lorraine and Valois; II: 1|3: 1. Farnese; 2. is occupied by the escutcheon in fess point; 3. Medici. III: 1|2 of Burgundy and Brabant. The shield enté en point of a parti of Flanders and Tirol. And in fess point ¼ of Castile and Leon enté en point of Granada, in nombril point Bourbon.

Crown: A Royal crown of five hoops

Order: The Collar of the Order of the Fleece

 

By king Charles IV the Collar of the Order of  Charles III (1771) was added

Also the royal arms were supported by four banners and the Piles of Hercules. and the ribbon above the shield was inscribed PLUS ULTRA.

 

In this achievement the arms of Queretaro occupied a quite subordinated place below te royal arms, but were supported by a drum and two cannon in saltire.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Å Royal Achievement for Queretaro.

As on a map of the city, 1796

 

After independence the royal arms were omitted and replaced by the Mexican eagle:

 

 

When the Mexican Eagle was changed the crest of the arms of Queretaro was changed accordingly.

 

 

Achievement of Queretaro between 1867-1918  Æ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Å  Achievement of Queretaro 1918-‘34

 

The present achievement of Queretaro has the Mexican Eagle of 1968 for crest and is supported by two nationa flags in saltire. It has a trophy of cannon, quivers and cornucopia for compartment and the garland of the national emblem below.

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section.

 

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Quintana Roo

 

Quintana Roo, formerly a territory of Yucatan became a state of the United States of Mexico on 8 October 1974. Its arms are:

 

Arms: Per fess, the chief per pale: 1. Gules, the maya hieroglyph for snail, Or; 2. Azure, a five-pointes star Argent; 3. Or, the maya hieroglyph for wind and three triangles in chief Vert.

Crest: A sun Gules radiating Or.

 

In the arms

  • The snail represents the ethinic origins of the Quintana Roo people
  • The star symbolizes the orientation to new goals, the blue symbolizes the sea
  • The hieroglyph for wind symbolizes the hurricanes characteristic for the region
  • The sun symbolizes the shining future, its rays are for the seven municipalities: Cozumel, Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Isla Mujeres, Othón P. Blanco, Benito Juárez, José María Morelos y Lázaro Cárdenas. In 1993 after the accession of Solidaridad the number was augmented to eight and in 2008 after the accession of Tulun to nine. In 2010 when the city of Bacalar was created the number was augmented to ten and will be augmented to eleven when a city of Morelos will be created.

 

San Luis Potosí

 

 

 

San Luis Potosi was founded as the Village of San Luis Mesquitique  on 3 November 1592. Its name was given in honor of St. Louis IX, King of France (1226-’70) and the inhabitants of the region living there since the 13th century. In 1656 the settlement was granted the title of ‘city’. At the same time the name of ‘Mesquitique’ was changed into ‘Potosi’ by viceroy Francisco Fernández de la Cueva Duque de Alburquerque in 1656, comparing the wealth of the S. Pedro-mines with the wealth of the mines of Potosi in Bolivia. Also  a coat of arms was granted. This was all confirmed in Madrid on 17 August 1658 by king Philip IV. The grant of arms reads:

 

 “…y le señalo por Armas para que pueda usar de ellas, un Cerro con campo azul y oro, con dos Barras de plata y otras dos de oro, y con la Imagen de San Luis en su cumbre; y en cuanto a esto apruebo el señalamiento de dichas Armas, y en las demás…”

“Yo El Rey”

 

That is:

...and may use a coat of arms  consisting of a mountain [proper] on a field [parted per pale] Azure and Or with two billets Or [per pale on the dexter] and two billets Argent [per pale on the sinister], and the image of St. Louis on its top [proper]..[1]

 

The Mexican constitution of  1824 elevated San Luis Potosi to a free and sovereign state which received its first political constitution on 17 October 1826. For this state the arms of the city are used.

 

 

The charges of the arms mean:

  • King Louis the Saint:  the rule of Justice, Loyalty and Serenity
  • Azure:  Superiority, Equality and Valiance
  • Or: Nobility, Greatness and Purity of sentiments
  • The golden and silver billets: The minerals forming the base of the metallurgical industries of the state
  • The mountain: The hope on a bright future vested into the agave-plants (magueyes = Agave americana - agavoidæ) of this country.

 

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Sinaloa

 

 

Dragon Fruit

Pitahaya blanca, Hylocereus undatus.

The Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa, formerly the Estado de Occidente (Western State) was founded in 1831. According to the law about the national arms of Mexico, the emblem of Mexico, surrounded by the name of the service was also used by Sinaloa. In the time of president Álvaro Obregón (1920-’24) a coat of arms was designed for the state by the artist  Diego Rivera (1886-1957). This consisted of a foul anchor surrounded by a bordure charged with seven mermaids.

A proposal of  a law about the arms of Sinaloa was sent by the then governor General Gabriel Leyva Velasquez to the Congress of Sinaloa on 10 October 1958.

The arms, designed by Rolando Arjona Amábilis, were approved by the Congress by Decree n° 241 on the following 17 November. [2]

 

The arms are:

 

Arms: A dragon fruit (pitaya), proper, charged with a quarterly of the emblems of Culiacán, El Fuerte, Rosario and Mazatlán, charged with five footprints sable and inscribed SINALOA 1831 in white lettering.

Crest: The mexican eagle and prickly pear proper

Motto: COLTZIN, HUEY, COLHUACAN, MAZATLÁN

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section.

 

The dragon fruit was chosen as a pun on the name of the state which is composed of ‘Sina’, meaning pitahaya (= dragon fruit), and ‘Lobola’ meaning: field.

 

First seal of the Government of the State of Occidente,

as document  Nº 9 signed by  Governor Elías González, 1826.

From: García Becerra, José A.: El Estado de Occidente, 1996

 

Seal of Sinaloa printed on the

‘Índice de Disposiciones del Estado de Sinaloa’, 1887, AHGS

Seal of Sinaloa

Printed on an official paper, 1888.

AHGS

 

Arms of Sinaloa 

as proposed by Diego Rivera and painted on the walls of the ‘Secretaría de Educación Pública’ in 1923. Used until 1958.

From: Bonilla Zazueta, Marta L: “Escudos del Estado de Sinaloa”, 2002

 

Achievement of Sinaloa, 1958

 

Police

 

The emblem of the Sinaloa Police shows a white shield charged with the arms of Sinaloa and the Mexican colours between the inscriptions: POLICIA ESTATAL and SINALOA in blue lettering, supported by the star of the Mexican Police.

 

Sonora

 

Sonora is the reult of negotiations between general Pedro de Perea and the viceroy of New Spain  the duke of e Escalona in 1647. Pedro de Perea called his teritory New Andalacia at first  but since 1648 its name is Sonora.

In 1824 Sonora and Sinaloa were united into the state of Occidente but in 1830 both parts became free and sovereign states of the Republic of Mexico. In the American Mexican War Sonora lost more than fifty per cent of its territory, a loss which was recognized by treaty of La Mesilla. In 1853-’54 Sonora an Lower California were united for a short time by an American adventurer called William Walker but he had soon to give up.

 

A first coat of arms for Sonora was designed by the Mexican painter Diego Rivera in the twenties of the 20th century. This showed a standing man on a field divided in several parts and with a swastika on his breast. Of these arms there are two versions but they have in common that both were not officially adopted and not very well known by the population. [3]

 

 

The Diego Rivera arms of Sonora

 

In 1946 governor Abelardo L. Rodríguez (1943-’48) took the initiative to make a new design for the arms of Sonora. It is said to have been drawn by a certain Conrado Gallegos from Huapac.

The arms are:

 

Arms: Per fess, the chief tierced per point, the base parted per pale: 1. Vert, a mine charged wit a pick and axe in saltire; 2. Argent, an indian dancer proper; 3. Gules, a sheaf of wheat Or; 4. Or, a bull’s head proper; 5. Azure, the coat of Sonora and the island of Tiburon Or, and a shark per bend sinister over all proper.

Motto: ESTADO DE SONORA in golden lettering in base of a bordure of the shield Azure.

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section.

 

Tabasco

 

In pre-columbian times the territory of  present-day Tabasco was inhabited by the Olmecs and the Maya. Their cities had been abandoned already when the spaniards appeared at the beginning of the 16th century.

In 1564 the city of San Juan Bautista was founded at the borders of the river Grijalva by Diego de Quijada. Its foundation was approved by king Philip II in 1567. In 1598 the city was granted the title of Villa Hermosa (Excellent City), together with a coat of arms.

This was:

 

Arms: Quarterly: 1. Gules, four castles Or, masoned Sable, for the kingdom of Castile; 2. Argent, a left arm, with a sword and a shield, for the spanish rule of the province; 3. Argent, woman stripped to the waist issuant proper, plumed and dressed in a skirt of red and green feathers, with ribbons around the upper arms and bunches of red and green flowers in her hands, for the local culture. 4. Gules a crowned lion Or, for the kingdom of Leon. And an oval escutcheon Argent, the bust of the Holy Virgin, crowned, dressed Gules and with a mantle Azure, proper, within a bordure Or; supported by the Piles of Hercules, Argent, the one of the dexter with a listel inscribed NEC PLUS, the one of the sinister with a listel iscribed ULTRA in green lettering, each crested with a globe Azure, the meridians and paralles of latitude indicated.

Crest: A royal Crown.

 

In 1892 this coat of arms was adopted for the state of Tabasco by the Congress of the State of Tabasco.

 

Tamaulipas

 

 

 

 

In pre-columbian times the territory of present Tamaulipas was inhabited by several indian peoples. At the end of the 16th century it was seen by Amerigo Vespucci who noted that it was called Lariab by its inhabitants. In the time of spanish rule it was known as  the kingdom of Guasteca, the province of Amichel and Garayana-territory, the province of Pánuco, the region of Paul, Alifau and Ocinan, Médanos de la Magdalena, Costa del Seno Mexicano, and New Kingdom of Leon. In 1746 it was incorporated into the kingdom of New Spain with the name of New Santander. The present name is the name of the village of Tamaholipa which was founded by Brother Andrés de Olmos en 1544.

After independence the state rebelled against the regime of Antonio López de Santa Anna, and decided in 1840 to leave the Mexican republic and to unite with the República del Río Grande and Nuevo León and Coahuila. This republic was liquidated by the mexican army.

 

 

The first coat of arms in connexion with Tamaulipas is the coat of arms of Jose de Escandón y Helguera, Conde de Sierra Gorda, Vizconde de Escandón and president of Tamaulipas, created between October 1749 and July 1751. His achievement was:

 

Arms: Quarterly: 1. Gules, a castle Argent; 2 Argent an eagle Sable between to eight-poonted stars Gules; 3. Sable, a kettle Or with a banner Gules, between two eight-pointed stars Gules; 4. Vert, a castle Argent. And over all a latin cross Or.

Crest: A helmet to the dexter plumed Sable, Vert and Gules.

Supporters: Two bearded men each with a palm-leaf in their outer hand.

 

The legend accompanying the arms reads: “These rustic arms, nevertheless spreads the light of the cross and is of the House of Escandon. [4]

 

Arms for Tamaulipas were designed by the artist Diego Rivera in the twenties of the 20th century. These arms, displayed in the Secretaria de Educación Pública, showed a rising sun between two mountains and five snails.

In 1939 a new coat of arms was designed by governor Marte R. Gomez (1937-’41). It was approved and published in the Periódico Oficial del Estado by decree n° 24 of 9 March 1939 and was used until the term of office of Enrique Cárdenas González (1975-’81).

 

By decree of the Congress of the State of 7 September 1978 the arms were changed by adding plants of agave and sorghum. The third quarter became parted per pale with in the dexter half a port and ships for the fishimg industries  and in the sinister half a tractor for the mechanisation of agriculture and a derrick for the oil-industries.

 

By decree n° 20 of April 1984 of the Constitutional Congress the arms were adapted for use in print.

The decree reads:

 

ARTICULO 2

El Escudo de Armas del Estado de Tamaulipas se compone de cuatro secciones enmarcadas en un pergamino amarillo oro con las características de diseño del Escudo que al presente Decreto se anexa y que al quedar de frente se describe como a continuación se especifica:

En la primera sección, correspondiente a la parte izquierda y en fondo azul, aparecen dispuestas en el siguiente orden una planta de maíz, una de sorgo con la panoja anaranjada, una de agave y una de caña, todas en color verde como símbolo de las fuentes principales que han dado auge al desarrollo agrícola de nuestra entidad.

En la segunda sección, correspondiente a la parte superior central, aparece el Escudo de Armas de Don José de Escandòn y Heguera Conde de Sierra Gorda, como testimonio de reconocimiento por su obra social, humanitaria y civilizadora, para lo cual se identificará solamente el escudo condal con una cruz amarilla suprimiéndose los soportes, el timbrado y la corona para representarse en siguiente descripción:

En la parte superior izquierda aparece una torre azul en fondo rojo.

En la parte superior derecha una águila dorada en fondo azul.

En la parte inferior izquierda un caldero dorado con una bandera roja en fondo azul.

En la parte inferior derecha una torre azul en fondo rojo.

En la tercera sección, correspondiente a la parte superior derecha, en fondo rojo aparecen de arriba hacia abajo un toro de raza cebú en color café obscuro, una vaca de la misma raza en color amarillo ocre, y un ejemplar de ganado caprino en color beige, señalándose con ello la producción pecuaria de nuestra entidad.

En la cuarta sección,

En la parte inferior, en fondo azul cielo se presenta arriba y al centro el característico Cerro del Bernal en color café, mostrando a cada lado de la parte superior del mismo una nube blanca.

En la parte inferior izquierda se presenta un barco camaronero gris claro y un pez anaranjado en un mar azul obscuro con lo que se identifica la explotación e industria pesquera de nuestro estado.

En la parte inferior y al centro se presenta un tractor blanco en un campo beige, surcando la tierra como testimonio de desarrollo a través de la mecanización del campo.

En la parte inferior derecha en fondo verde se presenta una torre petrolera de color negro y dos depósitos de petróleo blancos, significado el potencial de hidrocarburos y la capacidad técnica para su refinación.

 

That is:

Arms: Per fess, the chief per pale: 1. Azure, plants of maize, sorghum and sugar proper; 2. Gules, a buffalo, a cow and a goat issuant to the sinister, proper. The base Azure the Cerro del Bernal between clouds, in dexter base a port with a fishing ship, in the center a tractor ploughing approaching, and in sinister base a derrick and a white petrol depot in a meadow, all proper. And in chief on an escucheon over all, the arms of Escandon.

Compartment:  A sheet of parchment, Or.

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section.

 

Police

 

 

Tlaxcala

 

 

The coat of arms of Tlaxcala was granted by royal warrant of king emperor Charles V dated Madrid 22 April 1535. It is:

 

Arms: Gules, A three-towered castle Or, masoned Sable and opened Azure, on its central tower a banner Or, a two-headed eage Sable; within a bordure Argent, two palm-leaves per pale, proper, in chief the letters I, K and F separated by two crowns of five leaves, and in base two bones in saltire between two skulls Or.

 

In the arms the castle is for the kingdom of Castile and the banner is the banner of the German Nation of the Holy Roman Empire.

The letters are for I(oanna the Mad), K(arl V) and F(ilip II).

 

Royal Warrant

Granting the city of Tlaxcala the title of Leal Ciudad and a coat of arms,

Bought by the Centro de Estudios de Historia de Mexico, 1974.

 

Veracruz

 

 

By Royal warrant of  4 July 1523 King - Emperor Charles I (V) granted a coat of arms to the village of Villa Rica de Veracruz (later known as the City of Veracruz today ‘La Antigua’). At the same time a coat of arms was granted to the city of Mexico, Medellin and the village of Espirito Santo (today: Coatzacoalacos).

Probably between 1621 and 1635 king Philip IV has permitted the city of Nueva Veracruz to use this coat of arms which has used it since then as its own.

The original document presented to the city of Veracruz la Antigua and the copy presented to Nueva Veracruz are lost. It can not be found in the General Archives of the Indies. Today it is known from a transcription of 1792 made for the council of Nueva Veracruz which in its turn goes back to a copy made in 1618. This last document is preserved in the National General Archives in Mexico city,

In 1969 photographies were published of the text of 1792 in Artes de Mexico but the archives where it was found were not given. Also in publications of other authors the location of the document remains unknown. [5]

The copy of 1618 reads:

 

Don Carlos, Por la Divina Clemencia, Emperador Semper Augusto, Rey de Alemania, Doña Juana su madre, y el mismo don Carlos por la gracia de Dios, Rey de Castilla, de León, de Aragón,  de las dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaen, de los Algarbes, de Algecira, de Gibraltar, de las Islas de Canarias, de la Indias, Islas y tierra firme del mar océano, Conde de Barcelona, Señores de Vizcaya y de Molina, Duque de Atenas e de Neopatria, conde de rruisellon y de Cerdeña, Marques de Orisdan, y  de Gociano, Archiduque de Austria, Duque de Borgoña e de Bravante, Conde de Flandes e de Tirol, etc.

Por cuanto Francisco de Montejo y Alonso Fernández Puertocarrero en nombre del Consejo, Justicia, Regidores, caballeros, escuderos, oficiales, hombres buenos de la Villa Rica de la Veracruz, que es en la nuestra Nueva España, nos hicieron relación que después que la dicha Villa por la gracia de Nuestros Señor fue fundada, hasta ahora no habemos mandado dar, ni señalar Armas e Devisas que trajésedes en sus pendones, y pusiésedes en sus sellos, y en otras partes donde las ciudades y villas de estos Reinos las acostumbran poner y traer, y nos suplicaron e pidieron por merced en el dicho nombre diésemos y señalásemos Armas para que trajéredes en los dichos pendones de la dicha villa y se pusiese en su sello, y en las otras cosas e partes y lugares donde fuese necesario, e nos, considerando que la dicha Villa es el primer pueblo que fue fundado y poblado de cristianos en la dicha tierra, y acatando los trabajos y fatigas y peligros que los vecinos y pobladores de la dicha Villa han pasado, y sus servicios, y por que es cosa justa y razonable que los que bien sirven sean honrados y favorecidos de sus príncipes, y por que la dicha Villa sea más noblecida y honrada, tuvimos por bien, y por la presente vos hacemos merced y señalamos, y queremos que tengan por sus armas conocidas, un escudo el medio de él a la parte de arriba un castillo dorado en campo verde, y el otro medio a la parte de abajo dos columnas blancas que son divisas de mí, el Rey, en campo azul, con letra que dice Plus Ultra, y en el alto del escudo una cruz colorada, y por orla de él trece estrellas azules en campo dorado en un escudo a tal como este =aquí esta el escudo de armas= las cuales dichas armas y divisas damos a la dicha villa por sus armas conocidas para que las pueda traer, y poner e traiga e ponga en los pendones y sellos y escudos y banderas de ella, y en otras partes donde quiérades, y fuese menester según e como e de la forma  e manera que las traen e ponen las otras ciudades de estos dichos nuestros reinos de Castilla que tienen armas, y por esta nuestra carta mandamos al Ilustre infante don Fernando nuestro muy caro e muy amado hermano e hijo, y a los duques, marqueses, prelados, condes, ricos omes (sic), maestres de las ordenes, priores e comendadores, alcaides de las fortalezas y casas fuertes, y llanos, y a los del nuestro consejo presidentes e oidores de las nuestras Audiencias e alcaldes e alguaciles de la nuestra corte e cancillería, e los gobernadores y capitanes y justicias, y otros nuestros oficiales de las Indias, Islas e Tierra firme del mar océano, e a los consejeros, corregidores, asistentes, alcaldes, alguaciles y merinos, y a otras justicias e oficiales cualesquiera de todas las ciudades y villas de los nuestros reinos, y a cada uno, y cualquier de ellos e a otras cualesquiera persona nuestros súbditos naturales, que vos guarden e cumplan, e hagan guardar e cumplir esta nuestra carta e la nuestra en ella contenida en todo, e por todo según que en ella se contiene e contra  el tenor e forma de ella vos no vayan ni consientan ir, ni pasar en tiempo alguno, ni por alguna manera, so pena de la nuestra merced, y de cien mil maravedíes para nuestra cámara a cada uno que lo contrario hiciere e demás mandamos, etc.  con emplazamiento en forma. Dada en la Villa de Valladolid a cuatro días del mes de julio, año del nacimiento de Nuestro Salvador Jesucristo, de mil e quinientos e veinte y tres años. Yo el Rey.

Yo Francisco de los Cobos, comendador  mayor del Con secretario de su cesárea católicas majestades la hice escribir por su mandado la provisión aquí escrita mande sacar de mis libros por duplicada a pedimento de la Alonso de Aybar, procurador de la ciudad de la Nueva Veracruz en Madrid a veinte de junio de mil seiscientos y diez y ocho años. Yo el Rey. Yo Juan Ruiz de Contreras Secretario del Rey Nuestro Señor la hice escribir por su mandado = Rubricado = Duplicado refrendada = Francisco = no se percibe lo demás que esta escrito = Canciller = Francisco = no se percibe lo demás que esta escrito = Otra firma cuyos nombres y apellidos no se comprende con perfección = Licenciado don Roque de Aguiar y Acuña = Licenciado Alonso María de Torres =  LicenciadoDiego Lucio Lugero = Licenciado don Luis Campo Prieto = Sello de Armas a la Villa Rica de la Veracruz en la Nueva España = Esta sellado con el sello real.[6]

 

That is:

Arms: Per fess Vert and Azure in chief a castle Or and in base the Piles of Hercules Argent inscribed PLUS ULTRA and high in the shield a cross Gules; surrounded by a bordure Or charged with 13 stars Azure

 

It is supposed that the cross initially was placed in the chief above the castle but later it was drawn as a kind of crest. About the subject there is a discussion.

 

Medal

struck to commemorate the proclamation of king Ferdinand VII, 1808.

 

On this version of the arms the cross is in the upper part of the bordure.

 

1920-ties

 

This version is used by the present Government of Veracruz (2012).

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section

 

Police

 

 

Yucatán

 

 

 

Initially the territory of Yucatan was a part of the Audiencia de los Confines, also known as Guatemala. On 9 January 1560 it became a part of the Audiencia of Mexico. In 1617 it was considered to be a General Captaincy dependent from New Spain and comprising Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatán and the northern part of what is now Belize.

In 1786 it became the Government of Yucatan.

On September 15, 1821, in the Hall of Councils of the City of Mérida, Yucatán declared its independence from Spain and it was incorporated into the Mexican Empire on 2 November 1821.

After the fall of the Mexican Empire the first Republic of Yucatán, declared on May 29, 1823, joined the Federal Republic of the United Mexican States as the Federated Republic of Yucatán on December 23, 1823.

A second Republic of Yucatán emerged when the federal pact, signed by Yucatán and endorsed in the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825, was broken by the centralist government of Mexico in 1835.

In 1841 the state of Tabasco decreed its separation from Mexico and  the creation of an independent federal republic from Mexico formed by the two states was proposed. The idea failed when Tabasco rejoined Mexico in 1842.

On August 22, 1846, Mexican interim president José Mariano Salas restored the 1824 federal constitution. Two years later, during the government of president José Joaquín de Herrera, Miguel Barbachano ordered the reinstatement of Yucatán to Mexico under the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825.

 

In the time of the General Captaincy and the Republic of Mexico until 1989, the coat of arms of the city of Merida, adopted 16 August 1618 was used for Yucatan. It was:

 

Picture: Wikipedia

 

Arms:  Parted per pale the first Azure, a three-towered castle Or; the second Vert a lion rampant Ot.

Crest: A crown of five leaves

Garland: Branches of laurel and olive

Motto: MUY NOBLE Y MUY LEAL CIUDAD DE MÉRIDA (The very noble and loyal city of Mérida)

 

The coat of arms of Yucatan was adopted by decree of 30 November 1989 of the government of the state, published in the Diario Oficial, after an initiative of Governor Víctor Manzanilla Schaffer of 22 September 1989. It is the winning design of a competion won by Juan Francisco Peón Ancona.

 

The arms are:

 

Arms: Vert, a deer salient, a shing sun issuant in sinister chief and a plant of agave growing on a ground in base, Or; within a bordure Or, a maya-arch in chief and in base and a spanish bell-tower on the dexter and on the sinister, Vert.

Motto: YUCATAN in green lettering on a ribbon Or.

 

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Zacatecas

 

 

In 1531 the settlement of Guadalajara, present Nochistlan was founded by the spaniards. This settlement was later moved to its current location in Jalisco because of water supply problems and indigenous attacks The capital was founded by Juan de Tolosa with the support of Cristobal de Oñate and Pedro Almendez Chirinos in 1546, after the discovery of one of the world’s richest silver veins. However, the area was dangerous for Spanish settlement because of the fierce opposition of the native peoples. In 1541, an indigenous leader named Tenamextle, also known as Francisco Tenamaztle and Diego the Aztec, rebelled, capturing and executing the spanish leader Miguel de Ibarra. Nevertheless after the Mixtón War in the 1540s. the Spanish continued to push into Zacatecas because of its silver wealth, making it a province of New Galicia.

Much of the state’s colonial history to the present has been related to its mineral production, especially of silver. The first boom was from the Conquest to the mid 17th century. The riches drew settlers from the south and in 1586, Philip II gave the city the name of Noble and Loyal City of Nuestra Señora de los Zacatecas. In 1588, he authorized its coat of arms.

The next boom was in the early 18th century, with the state producing one-fifth of the world’s silver. These riches supported the establishment of new settlements along with the building of elegant churches and mansions as the area became one of the most important of New Spain .

During the Mexican War of Independence, Miguel Hidalgo’s troops marched through Zacatecas twice, once when they were attacking royalist troops and later when fleeing them. The war ended in 1821 and Zacatecas formally became a state in 1824, with the city of Zacatecas as its capital.

 

The design of the coat of arms of Zacatecas is known from a painting dated 1584, preserved in the Hisorical Archives of the city of Zacatecas. This paintaing shows:

 

File:Escudo de la ciudad de zacatecas.jpg

Painting of the later coat of arms of Zacatecas, 1584

Archivo Historico de la Ciudad de Zacatecas

 

The painting shows  the Holy Virgin with the child on a mountain and standing on the royal cypher of king Philip II: PHLVS II. In the sky are a sun and a moon and at the foot of the mountain are four standing men to be identified as Juan de Tolosa, Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, Diego de Ibarra and captain Cristóbal de Oñate, the discoverers of the mountains. Below is the motto LABOR VINCIT OMNIA (Work Conquers All).

In this picture the Holy Virgin and Child within a halo is taken from the banner of the Spanish Admiralty.

 

In his royal warrant granting a coat of arms an the title of Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad to Zacatecas, dated San Lorenzo de El Escorial 20 June 1588, king Philip II closely follows this picture. The description of the arms in the warrant reads:

 

... “Por ende, por la presente hago merced a la dicha ciudad de que agora y de aquí en adelante haya y tenga por sus armas conocidas un escudo y en él una peña grande por estar la dicha ciudad al pie de otra que se llama La Bufa y en lo más eminente una cruz de plata y en una parte la más acomodada de la misma peña, una imagen de Nuestra Señora por aver descubierto en aquel zerro y peñazco en el día de su nacimiento Juanes de Tolosa y más abajo una zifra coronada de oro que diga Philipo para que siempre haya memoria de averse intitulado y ennoblecido la dicha Ciudad en el tiempo que por la misericordia de Dios yo Reyno y en los dos extremos de lo más alto de dicho escudo el sol y la luna y en la falda de dicha peña cuatro retratos de personas en campo de plata por la memoria del dicho Joanes de Tolosa y Diego de Ibarra, Baltasar de Bañuelos y el Capitán de Oñate, primeros cuatro descubridores del dicho Zerro y peñazco y pobladores de dicha Ciudad y devajo que diga un letrero Labor vincit Omnía: y en la orla cinco manojos de flechas entremetidas con otros cinco que son las armas que husan los indios Chichimecas según que aquí va pintado y figurado”

 

That is:

Arms: La Bufa mountain, crested with a silver latin cross, charged with the Holy Virgin-and-Child within a halo proper, standing on a crowned shield Azure, charged with the cypher PHLVS II Or, a sun in dexter chief and a moon in sinister chief and in base four men in armour being the discoverers of the said mountain Juan de Tolosa, Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, Diego de Ibarra and captain Cristóbal de Oñate, proper and a listel with the motto LABOR VINCIT OMNIA below; within a bordure charged with five bundles of arrows separated by another five which are the arms of the Chichimecs as depicted here.

 

These arms were covered with a royal crown. [7]

 

For the state of Zacatecas the crown is omitted and some minor modifications are inserted.

 

Æ See illustration in the head of this section.

 

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© Hubert de Vries 2014-01-28

 



[1] From internet. No full text of the grant available.

[2] López Alanís, Gilberto J. (AHGS): Breve Historia del Escudo del Estado de Sinaloa. In:  Revista Digital- Nº 24 – Jueves 14 de Junio de 2012, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México

[3] From internet. Photo on the right: Flickr.

[4] “Aunque rústicos, estas armas cuya luz ha venido de esta cruz y son de linaje y casa de Escandón”.

[5] http://aguapasada.wordpress.com/2012/07/08/cedula-real-del-escudo-de-armas-de-veracruz/

[6] From: Veracruz 490 aniversario, revista Artes de México, No. 116, año XV, 1968. p. 19

[7] See: Wikipedia Escudo de Zacataecas.