Bogdo Gegens of Mongolia


The Kingdom

The Peoples Republic

Mongolian State

Armed Forces






The kingdom



Even before the abdication of the last Chinese emperor, on 18 November 1911, Mongolian princes proclaimed the "Living Buddha of Urga" (Ulan Bator) as "Bogdo Khan" of Outer Mongolia. An autonomous government was formed that was disbanded by the Chinese on 22 November 1919 without the Bogdo Khan being deposed.


Emblem on the flag


Æ The soyombo character was placed as a kind of key to all texts written in the late 17th century from Tibetan developed Mongolian script. It was considered in 1911 as a symbol of independence and of the liberation of the Manchus. The figure is reminiscent of the adornment of a lamaistic ritual dagger (Phur-bu), which is used in exorcism. The parts mean: triangle = fire; rectangle = earth; disk (with the yin-yang symbol) = water.


On 13 March 1921, a new Mongolian government was formed in Russia that could establish itself on 6 July of the same year in Urga (since 1924: Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar) = Red Hero). The Bogdo Khan was requested to further restrict himself to religious matters.



On the state flag, of orange colour surrounded by a red bordure and with three long lappets, is the soyombo state emblem.

On the lappets are inscriptions in soyombo script:










The symbol of the Khanate or Kingdom can be found on the back of the garment of Bogdo Khan. This is yellow with a medallion on it with a border decorated with Mongolian motifs. In the middle is a polychrome soyombo on a golden, round plateau surrounded by a lotus. Around the soyombo is a wreath of flames in the form of a double pointed arch. The soyombo is made up of the following elements:


1. An equilateral white triangle, the point down;

2. A green bar;

3. A yin-yang symbol (without holes), the right side red, the left side white;

4. A yellow bar;

5. A blue triangle, the point down;

6. A reclining red crescent;

7. A yellow sun;

8. The exalted sign "Om" in blue.

9. Two black poles on either side.


Seven leaves can be seen from the lotus (padma) surrounding the golden plateau. These are alternately red and pink and surrounded with resp. blue and green edges, the petals are red. The flames in the wreath, finally, are red. [1]


Manmudaatar Damdinsuren's descendant Asashoryu, the champion of D.Dagvadorj, gave a place of honor to the people of Mongolia during the days of election.


The Mongolians who are enjoying their liberty reminded them of the forgiveness and lighted their fading. It's a story of how independence has come to us when it comes to us. I would like to emphasize "Manlibaatar" from a must-read story.


Manlaibaatar Damdinsuren (1871-1921) was born in Bogd Khan, General Director of Mongolian Army and Mongolian Independent Independence (1871-1921) was born 5th son of the seven children, the third son, and his wife, Udval, Inner Mongolia Khong white banner and 1871.03.13. He was a descendant of the Mongols who traveled to Khulenbuir in Khalkh's Setsen Khan aimag in the 1630s.


08 Ngawang Losang Chökyi Nyima Tensin Wongchuk

(Ngag dbang blo bzang chos kyi nyi ma bstanb ‘dzin dbang-phyug)


Bogdo Khan 18.11.1911-07.1921


Portrait of the Eighth Bogdo Gegen.

Anonymous. Colors on cotton, H.: 62.0 cm. W.: 43.5 cm

Bogdo Khan Palace Museum, Ulaanbaatar.

From Tsultem, Mongol Zurag, fig. 174.


Tsendiin Dondogdulam *1876-†1923, spouse of Bogdo Gegen (1902-1923)

Textile painting, after 1911, by Balduu (Marzan) Sarav (1869–1939).

Mineral colors on fabric, 113 × 85 cm., Ulan Bator, Zanabazar Art Museum. Inv. 193–695,



Ceremonial Royal dress



Eight Bogdo Gegen in royal dress



Crested with a vajra bell (drilbu) and decorated with a moon-pearl

State ceremonial jacket

Mid 1910s. Brocade, gauze, silk, brass, iron 170 x 115 cm

National Museum of Mongolia


Gold-coloured silk, decorated on the shoulders with a (white) moon and a (red) sun, on the breast a Wheel of Law  (cakra, korlo). All surrounded by ribbons.



Breast patch

Wheel of Law

Shoulder patch (right)


Shoulder patch (left)



The seal of the first Bogdo Gegen. [2]


Royal seal of Bogd Khan in 1911.


Imperial seal of Bogd Khan in 1911. From left to right: in Soyombo, Classical Mongolian and Phags-pa


The seal of the 8th B.G. departed from the seals of his predecessors. It is covered in the article about the seal of the 1st B.G.


The soyombo is also on the seal of the queen. The inscription reads: “Seal of the Dakini Mother of the Nation, which brings about the joint prosperity of Religion and State”.


Dākinīs occur most notably in Vajrayana Buddhism and especially Tibetan Buddhism. The khandroma, generally of volatile or wrathful temperament, acts somewhat as spiritual muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are energetic beings in female form, evocative of the movement of energy in space. In this context, the sky or space indicates śūnyatā, the insubstantiality of all phenomena, which is, at the same time, the pure potentiality for all possible manifestations.


Ministerial official dress


Mongolian council of ministers

in the mddle of the front row: Jalkhanz Khutagt, (prime minister) Namnansüren, and Manlaibaatar Damsinsüren. [3]



Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren in official dress


Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren (Манлайбаатар Дамдинсүрэн, first hero Damdinsüren; (*Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia 13.03.1871–†27.01.1921), was a military commander, Pan-Mongolist and diplomat who led Mongolia's struggle for independence in 1911.


The the breast- and shoulder patches  consists of the soyombo surrounded by floral motifs





Nomuun Khan Jalkhanz Khutagt's Silver Seal

o 10 Î 11 cm, weight 3215 g


The Jalkhanz Khutagt Sodnomyn Damdinbazar was a high Buddhist incarnation from northwestern Mongolia who played a prominent role in the country's independence movement in 1911-1912. He served as Prime Minister twice.


The handle of the seal shows the triple jewel (sanskrit tri-ratna.  tibetan konchog-sum). This is the Buddhist symbol of the Holy Triad (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) in which every professing Buddhist takes his daily refuge. Dharma signifies the Word of Buddha or the Law. Sangha, originally signifying Buddha’s order of monks, is generally interpreted by Tibetans a meaning the Congregation of Lamas or the Buddhst Church.




Seal of Mongolian People's Party

25th of June 1920

Wood, 5 x 5 cm


Bugd Nairamdach Mongol Arad Uls

(Mongolian Peoples’ Republic)



When Bogdo Khan died on 20 May 1924, the Mongolian Revolutionary People's Party, on the third day of the meeting of 4 August 1924, proclaimed the People's Republic on 26 November. On the same day, the parliament adopted a constitution in which the flag and the arms were also arranged. This constitution bears the subtitle: “The present constitution was adopted at 4.17 h. on the 30th day of the tenth month of the fourteenth year of the Mongolian state at the fourteenth session of the Great Huraldan of the Mongolian People's Republic”. The provisions on the state seal, the state arms and the flag are laid down in articles 47, 48 and 49.

Art. 47 says: `The seal of the Great Huraldan, the government, the ministries and the other government institutions will be rectangular; in the middle of the front of the seal is the character "Soyombo" with on both sides the name of the relevant government agency engraved ".

Art. 48 states: "The state arms consist of the aforementioned character "Soyombo" and below is a picture of the flower Badmalinchova".

The flag finally, established in art. 49, was like the  Soviet example red with the state arms in gold in the middle.

The soyombo was now regarded as the sign that the sovereignty had been transferred to the people.

The Badmalinchova is the lotus flower that also occurred earlier in the royal emblem.


The state arms of the People's Republic are taken directly from the seal of the queen, consort of the Bogdo Gegen. This was also square with a soyombo in the middle. The text in phagspa (Mongol script) reads: "The seal of the Dakini Mother of the nation, which ensures that religion and state flourish together". [4] This text was replaced by the name of the service in question, as also in many European countries since the Napoleonic era the state arms are combined with the name of the service in question.

The soyombo was also given the following rating during the People's Republic


  • At the top, the three flames symbolize the prosperity of the Mongols in past, present and future.
  • The sun and the crescent are the mythological father and mother of the Mongolian people.
  • The two triangles remind us of the arrowheads or spearheads that used to mean when pointing down "Death to the enemies of the Mongolian people".
  • The two horizontal rectangles recall the purity and integrity of the Mongolian people.
  • The two interlocking fish (!) making a circle are the complementary elements (male and female) of the world, and are derived from the Chinese yin and yang symbol.
  • The two vertical rectangles, rendered as walls, recall the proverb: "Two friends are stronger than stone walls" and mean here: “That the whole people will form a unity and therefore will be stronger than the stone walls of a fortress”.


National symbol - "Suld" (1924)


Title (Romanization):

Osnovnoi zakon i prilojeniya

Title (Russian):

Основной закон и приложения

Title (Mongolian):

Үндсэн хууль

Title (English):

The Constitution of the People's Republic of Mongolia


Constitution / Suld / People's Republic of Mongolia


The "Suld" is the national symbol of People's Republic of Mongolia


Translated version of the Constitution of People's Republic of Mongolia


Accepted "4.17PM; 30th day, 10th month and 14th year of Mongolia"


the USSR embassy in Mongolia


American Center for Mongolian Studies (ACMS)

Date Accepted:


Date Published:









Public Domain




Seals of the Mongolian Peoples’ Republic




The arms of state of 1924 remained as they were until the end of the thirties. They were then replaced by an emblem with the soyombo sign surrounded by a wreath, possibly of ears of corn. In the constitutional revision of 30 June 1940 it was replaced by an emblem of Soviet model. This emblem showed on a disk the image of an arat (mongolian farmer) riding to the sun on the Mongolian steppe with an urga (lasso stick) in the hand. Around the central representation is a wreath of grass blades charged with discs with the heads of a sheep, a cow, a camel and a goat. The wreath is closed in the upper half by an alcha, a golden meander on a red background. At the top is a gold-edged red star. Over the grass in base is a broad red ribbon with the name of the country in the classical mongolian script:  Bokt Naramdao Mongol Arat Ult.




Seal, 1940


Stamp, 1940



the State Secretariat of the Great Hural of State




Later the Mongolian inscription was replaced by the Cyrillic letters БИМАУ


Seal, 1955



the State Secretariat of the Great Hural of State


In the constitutional revision of 6 July 1960, the state arms were replaced again in art. 90.

An explanation issued by the government describes the arms as follows:


The symbol of the Mongolian People´s Republic



“The national emblem of the Mongolian People's Republic is round and surrounded by golden ears of corn. A five-pointed red star with the soyombo sign on it is at the top of the emblem. The star and the Soyombo, which is the symbol of national independence and prosperity, together symbolize the harmony of proletarian international views and national interests.

The white cogwheel on the ears of corn at the bottom of the emblem mean that the Mongolian People's Republic is an agrarian-industrial nation and they symbolize the alliance between the working class and the cooperative arats (farmers).

The cogwheel and the ears of corn are bound together with a red-blue-red ribbon with the initials of the state name "Б.И.М.А.У" (Bugd Nairamdag Mongol Ard Uls) in golden cyrillic letters, which lies over the cogwheel.

In the middle of the emblem is a horseman riding towards the rising sun. This means the advance of the country towards communism.

Yellow and pale green and dark green pine trees in the distance, against a bluish snow-covered mountain, are characteristics of the landscape of Mongolia-Harai (forest and forest-steppe zone), the steppe and the Gobi desert. The twelve golden rays of the rising sun against the clear blue sky, which occupies three-quarters of the space enclosed by the ears, symbolize the eternal prosperity of the nation.”


Mongol Uls (Mongolian State) 

12.02.1992- present


In the context of political upheavals after the fall of the Soviet Union, Mongolia also changed its form of government. The republic was renamed "Mongolia" (Mongol Uls) shortly after 12 February 1992. In the new Constitution of January of the same year, Art. 12 also established a new emblem. The emblem is blue, the color of the sky which is the traditional Mongolian sanctuary.On it is a combination of the "precious horse" and the soyombo sign in gold as an expression of the independence and sovereignty of the Mongolian spirit. In base is a Mongolian motif that represents mountains and thus symbolizes "mother earth". The whole is surrounded by a golden ring with the motif Tumen Nasan consisting of meanders of golden swastikas. In chief is the triple jewel Chandmani that symbolizes the past, the present and the future. At the bottom is the badmalinchova-lotus with above it an eight-spoked wheel, intertwined with a silk cloth, a hadag. The wheel and the cloth together symbolize respect and tribute and ever-lasting prosperity and welfare.). [5] In addition to the state emblem, the soyombo is also used as a national symbol.



The Constitution of Mongolia says the following about the Coat of Arms:


Chapter One. Sovereignty of the State Article 12


3. The State Emblem shall be based on the white lotus of purity. The outer frame shall be the “Tumen Nusan” of eternity in the shape of a blue sphere symbolizing the eternal sky. In the centre shall be a combination of the Golden Soyombo and the Treasured Steed, an expression of the independence, sovereignty and spirit of Mongolia In the upper part is the Chandmani which grants wishes and symbolizes the past, present and future. In the lower part shall be a green background of mountains representing Mother Earth and the Wheel of Destiny. Intertwined with the Wheel of Destiny shall be a “khadag” - scarf symbolizing welcome.


Æ See illlustration in the head of this article


Article 12 State Symbols


(1) The symbols of the independence and sovereignty of Mongolia are the State Emblem, Banner, Flag, Seal, and Anthem.

(2) The State Emblem, Banner, Flag, and Anthem express the historical tradition, aspiration, unity, justice, and the spirit of the people of Mongolia.

(3) The State Emblem is of circular shape with the white lotus serving as its base and the "Never-ending Tumen Nasan" pattern forming its outer frame. The main background is of blue color signifying the eternal blue sky, the Mongols traditional sanctity. In the center of the Emblem, a combination

of the Precious Steed and the Golden Soyombo sign is depicted as an expression of the independence, sovereignty and spirit of Mongolia. In the upper part of the Emblem the Triple Gem sign symbolizes the past, the present and the future. In the lower part of the Emblem the sign of the Wheel entwined with the silk scarf Hadag in an expression of reverence and respect, symbolizes continued prosperity. It is placed against the background of a hill pattern conveying the notion of "Mother Earth".

(4) The traditional Great White Banner of the unified Mongolian State is a state ceremonial attribute.

5) The State Flag is a rectangle divided vertically into three equal parts colored red, blue, and red. The blue color of the center of the flag symbolizes the eternal blue sky and the red color on both sides symbolizes progress and prosperity. The Golden Soyombo sign is depicted on the red stripe nearest to the flag pole. The ratio of the width and length of the Flag is one to two.

(6) The State Seal, having a lion-shaped handle, is of a square form with the state Emblem in the center and the word "Mongolia" inscribed on its sides. The President is the holder of the State Seal.

(7) The procedure for the ceremonial use of the State symbols and the text and melody of the State Anthem is prescribed by law.

General Intelligence Agency (GIA) (Тагнуулын ерөнхий газар)



GIA is the intelligence agency of the Mongolian government, under the control of the Prime Minister of Mongolia. Its headquarters is in Ulaanbaatar (Capital of the Mongolian Republic). The GIA acts as an early warning system to alert the Mongoliangovernment.





The badge of the service shows the Gerfalcon standing on an open book of law and crested with five spear heads


Cap badge

Cap badge 2018-


Sleeve patch


cap badges and sleeve patches




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© Hubert de Vries 2020-04-17



[1] This emblem is represented on the back cover of Eggebrecht, Eva & Manfred Gutgesell: Die Mongolen und ihr Weltreich. Philipp von Zabern. Mainz a/Rhein, 1989.

[2] Rintchen [Rinchen, Rintschen], B.: A propos de la sigillographie mongole: Le grand sceau de jaspe et le petit sceau d’argent du qagan  olan-a ergügdegsen. In: Acta Orientalia 3 (1953), 25-31.            Shuh, Dieter. Grundlagen tibetischer Siegelkunde: Eine Untersuchung über tibetische Siegelauf-schriften in ‘Phags-pa-Schrift. In: Monumenta Tibetica Historica, Band 3, Nr. 5 (1981), 5-7.


[4] Hesmer, K.H.: Flaggen, Wappen, Daten. Die Staaten der Erde von A-Z. Bertelsmann Lex. Verl. Gütersloh, 1975, pp. 146-147.

[5]  Hesmer, 1992. The eight-spoked wheel or the (buddhist-) Wheel of Law is also in the emblems of  Tibet and Bhutan.