MYANMAR

BURMA

Part 4

 

States & Divisions

 

UNION TERRITORY

Nay Pyi Taw

STATES

Chin

Kachin

Kayah

Kayin

Mon

Rakhine

Shan

DIVISIONS

Ayeyarwaddy

Bago

Magwe

Mandalay

Sagaing

ThaninthayI

Yangon

 

Back to Myanmar

 

States and Divisions

 

Myanmar (Burma) consists of a Union Terriory and 14 provinces divided in 7 states representing the areas of 7 main ethnic races and 7 divisions. All 7 states are more or less mountainous, whilst the divisions are mainly plain areas with the exception of Sagaing, Bago and Thaninthayi divisions

 

Union Territory

 

Nay Pyi Taw / နေပြည်တော

 

Nay Pyi Taw (Burmese: နေပြည်တော်) is the capital city of Myanmar. It is administered as the Naypyidaw Union Territory, as per the Constitution of 2008  

 

No flag or emblem of Nay Pyi Taw is known yet.

 

Armed Forces

 

Naypyidaw Command Shoulder Patch

 

The Naypyidaw Command is active in the city. Its headquarters are in Pyinmana

 

States

 

Chin

 

 

The bird in the white disc is a hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros - Bucerotidæ).

 

Armed Forces

 

Western Command Shoulder Patch

 

The Western Command is active in Chin. Its headquarters are in Ann

 

Kachin

 

Kachin State Flag

 

The Burmese government under Aung San reached the Panglong Agreement envisioning the creation of a Kachin State by the Constituent Assembly. Kachin State was formed in 1948 out of the British Burma civil districts of Bhamo and Myitkyina, together with the larger northern district of Puta-o. Kachin troops formerly formed a significant part of the Burmese army. With the unilateral abrogation of the Union of Burma constitution by the Ne Win regime in 1962, Kachin forces withdrew and formed the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) under the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO).

 

KIO

 

KIO flag

 

The Kachin Independence Organization was established on February 5, 1961 and effectively controlled the Kachin State (excluding major cities and the railway) during 1960s-1990s until in 1994 a peace treaty was signed, permitting continued KIO effective control of most of the State, under aegis of the Myanmar military

 

AA Arakan Army

 

The Arakan Army (AA) was formed in 2009 in the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) stronghold of Laiza, on Myanmar’s northern border with China, where the Arakan ethnic rebels received training and arms.

Emblem

 

Flag

 

KNO

 

KNO Emblem

 

The Kachin National Organization was founded on the 9th of January 1999. The formation was the result of extensive discussion between the overseas Kachins and the elders from the Kachin homeland. Its main goal is establishing an independent Kachinland.

 

KNO - flag

 

Armed Forces

 

The KIA was formed in 1961 in response to the military coup in Burma led by General Ne Win. From 1961 until 1994, the KIA fought a grueling and inconclusive war against the Burmese junta. Originally the KIA fought for independence, but now the official KIO policy goal is for autonomy within a federal union of Burma.

 

                               K.I.A. Arms

 

K.I.A. Shoulder Patch

 

K.I.A. Flag

 

 

Although the ceasefire between the government and the KIA has endured since 1994, general Sumlut Gun Maw confirmed renewed fighting for independence in the state of Kachin In 2011

 

Burmese National Army

 

Northern Command Shoulder Patch

 

The Northern Command is active in Kachin. Its headquarters are in Myitkyina

 

Kayah

 

Kayah Flag

 

The winged being on the flag is a Kanenaree / Kanenayar, a very gentle mythical bird with human head and torso (to be compared with the western angel). Also it is a symbol of true love. Kanenaree is a male and Kanenayar is a female angel. Kayar people believe that they are decended from kanenaree and kanenayars.

 

Armed Forces

 

Eastern Command Shoulder Patch

 

The Eastern Command is active in Kayah. Its headquarters are in Taunggyi.

 

Kayin

 

 

Kayin State is also called Karen State. On its territory and the surrounding territories inhabited by Karen-people an autonomous Karen state called Kawthoolei was planned after WWII.

 

Kawthoolei

Emblem of Kawthoolei

 

Kawthoolei is the Karen name for the state that the Karen people of Burma have been trying to establish since the late 1940s. Kawthoolei as a name is a relatively recent invention, penned during the time of former Karen leader Ba U Gyi, who was assassinated around the time of Burma's independence from Britain.

 

History

In 1881 the Karen National Associations (KNA) was founded by western-educated Christian Karens to represent Karen interests to the British. The majority Buddhist Karens were not organised until 1939 with the formation of a Buddhist KNA.

During World War II, when the Japanese occupied the region, long-term tensions between the Karen and Burma turned into open fighting.

The Karen people aspired to have the areas where they were the majority formed into a subdivision or “state” within Burma similar to what the Shan, Kachin and Chin peoples had been given. A goodwill mission led by Saw Tha Din and Saw Ba U Gyi to London in August 1946 failed to receive any encouragement from the British government for any separatist demands. When a delegation of representatives of the Governor's Executive Council headed by Aung San was invited to London to negotiate for the Aung San-Attlee Treaty in January 1947, none of the ethnic minority members was included by the British government. The following month at the Panglong Conference, when an agreement was signed between Aung San as head of the interim Burmese government and the Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, the Karen were present only as observers; the Mon and Arakanese were also absent. The British promised to consider the case of the Karen after the war. The 1947 Constitution, drawn without Karen participation due to their boycott of the elections to the Constituent Assembly, also failed to address the Karen question specifically and clearly, leaving it to be discussed only after independence. The Shan and Karenni states were given the right to secession after 10 years, the Kachin their own state, and the Chin a special division. The Mon and Arakanese of Ministerial Burma were not given any consideration.

 

Flag and Arms

The emblem is:

Arms:  the top of a Karen Rain drum decorated  with an eight-pointed star surrounded by an inscription and four frog-like images.

Crest: A five-pointed star

Garland: Branches of olive

Motto: Kawthoolei in Karen and GOVERNMENT OF KAWTHOOLEI on two scrolls. [1]

 

The flag of Kawthoolei is divided vertically in two parts 2 and 3, the mast end blue, in the upper half a red rising sun radiant charged with a yellow rain drum, the free end of three equal breaths red, white and blue.

 

Flag of Kawthoolei

 

Karen Drum

 

 

The use and manufacture of bronze drums is the oldest continuous art tradition in Southeast Asia. It began some time before the 6th century BC in northern Vietnam and later spread to other areas such as Burma, Thailand, Indonesia and China. The Karen adopted the use of bronze drums at some time prior to their 8th century migration from Yunnan into Burma where they settled and continue to live in the low mountains along the Burma-Thailand border. During a long period of adoption and transfer, the drum type was progressively altered from that found in northern Vietnam (Dong Son or Heger Type I) to produce a separate Karen type (Heger Type III). In 1904, Franz Heger developed a categorization for the four types of bronze drums found in Southeast Asia that is still in use today.

 

 

! An extensive article about the Karen drum on: http://www.drumpublications.org/karendrum.php

 

Karen National Union

 

Emblem of the KNU

 

In early February 1947, the Karen National Union (KNU) was formed at a Karen Congress attended by 700 delegates from the Karen National Associations, both Baptist and Buddhist (KNA - founded 1881), the Karen Central Organisation (KCO) and its youth wing, the Karen Youth Organisation (KYO), at Vinton Memorial Hall in Rangoon. The meeting called for a Karen state with a seaboard, an increased number of seats (25%) in the Constituent Assembly, a new ethnic census, and a continuance of Karen units in the armed forces. The deadline of March 3 passed without a reply from the British government, and Saw Ba U Gyi (1905-1950), the president of the KNU, resigned from the Governor's Executive Council the next day.

 

The emblem of the KNU is derived from the emblem of Kawthoolei.

 

The flag of the KNU is almost the same as the flag of Kawthoolei but the stripes in the free end have a proportion of 1, 2 and 1.

 

 

Armed Forces

 

In the fall of 1948, the Burmese government, led by U Nu, began an offensive against the Karen. The Karen National Defence Organisation (KNDO), formed in July 1947, then rose up in an insurgency against the government. They were helped by the defections of the Karen Rifles and the Union Military Police (UMP) units which had been successfully deployed in suppressing the earlier Burmese Communist rebellions, and came close to capturing Rangoon itself

 

Karen Rifles

 

Karen Rifles Horn

 

Karen Rifles Badge

 

Karen National Liberation Army

 

KNLA flag

KNLA Badge

 

Years later, the Karen had become the largest of 20 minority groups participating in an insurgency against the military dictatorship in Rangoon. During the 1980s, the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) fighting force numbered approximately 20,000. By 2006, the KNLA’s strength had shrunk to less than 4,000, opposing what is now a 400,000-man Burmese army. However, the political arm of the KNLA - the KNU - continued efforts to resolve the conflict through political means.

 

KNLA Arms

 

KNLA Flag

 

Democratic Karen Buddhist Army

 

In 1994-5 dissenters from the Buddhist minority in the KNLA formed a splinter group called the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), and went over to the side of the military junta. The split is believed to have led to the fall of the KNU headquarters at Manerplaw in January 1995.

 

The badge of the D.K.B.A. shows a chrysanthemum-like sun surrounded by a green garland and with a scroll below. This badge is also on a white square sleeve patch, surrounded by the name of the organization တိုးတက်သော ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ ကရင်အမျိုးသား တပ်ဖွဲ့ and the initials DKBA in blue script.

 

Cap badge

 

D.K.B.A. flag [2]

 

D.K.B.A. shoulder patch

 

Sleeve patch

 

Burma National Army

 

South Eastern Command Shoulder Patch

 

The South Eastern Command is active in Kayin. Its headquarters are in Mawlamyaing

 

Mon

 

 

The present flag and seal of Mon State show a golden hinthar or Brahminy duck.

This form of a duck is believed to have golden feathers, and is able to fly great distances. It is mated for total monogamy and great attachment to each other, so much so that if one is killed the other will not eat until death. It supposedly lives in large flocks.

 

It is a symbol of the Mon people because they believe that their former capital Bago was founded on a site where a pair of Hintha had dwelt.

 

Mon National Council

 

Mon National Council Banner

 

Prsent Mon State Flag

 

New Mon State Party

 

 

New Mon State Party (NMSP) was formed in July 1958 under the leadership of Nai Shwe Kyin (alias) Nai Ba Lwin just after a big surrender under the leadership of the Mon People’s Front (MPF) which took up armed resistance since 1948. Nai Shwe Kyin himself was a Central Executive Committee of the Mon People’s Front.

 

The emblem of the New Mon State Party is:

Emblem: Gules, the Shwedagon Pagoda charged with a hinthar, wings upwards, Or

Crest: A five-pointed  star Azure.

Garland: Ears of  rice Or.

Motto: N.M.S.P. and New Mon State Party in burmese and in mon-script Or, on a ribbon Azure.

 

The golden common shell-drake (Tadorna tadorna - Anseriformes) is the symbol of the Mons and is known in Mon language as “bob”. Its name in Pali is hamsa/hongsar; from which comes the derivation Homsavati / Hongsawatoi / Hanthawaddy, meaning ‘shell-drake country’. Just like the shell-drake the Mon live on the shore.

 

Ancient chronicles tell us that eight years after his enlightenment, Lord Buddha and his disciples flew over the Southeast Asian continent. On his return-journey, while crossing the Gulf of Martaban, which happened to be at low tide, he saw two golden shell-drakes, the duck on top of the drake, sitting on a cape protruding out of the sea just large enough for a bird’s perch. Seeing the strange phenomenon he predicted to his disciples that once a country would come into existence in this vast coastal area where his doctrine would thrive. About 1500 years after the prediction the region was colonized by Mons who founded the kingdom of Hongsawatoi / Hanthawaddy (shell-drake country) in 825 A.D..

 

Shwedagon Pagoda  is the central and most important pagoda of the Mon people.

 

The blue star symbolizes the Pole Star and is the guiding star of the Mon people.

 

Rice is the main cash-crop of Mon State.

 

 

The flag of the New Mon State Party has a ratio of  5 Í 3. It is red and shows a yellow shell-drake flying to the mast end and a blue five pointed star in the upper mast-end corner. 

The Red symbolizes courage and bravery;

Yellow symbolizes glory and nobility; and 

Blue symbolizes truth.

 

Armed Forces

 

Shoulder Patch

 

In Mon State the South Eastern Command is active. It has its headquarters in  Mawlamyaing

 

The Mon National Defense Organisation (MNDO) was established in March 1948. It went underground in 1949, led by the Mon United Front (MUF), which in 1952 became the Mon People's Front (MPF). Many Mon rebels surrendered in 1958 while those still active formed the New Mon State Party (NMSP) under the leadership of Nai Shwe Kyin. The Mon National Liberation Army (MNLA) was formally founded as its armed wing on 29 August 1971. In 1981, the NMSP split into two factions, one led by Nai Shwe Kyin and the other by Nai Nol Lar. The latter faction joined the National Democratic Front (NDF) in 1982. In 1987, the two factions reunited with Nai Shwe Kyin as the chairman. From 2003 the new NMSP chairman is Nai Htaw Mon. The last reported commander of the MNLA was Major General Nai Aung Naing, elected at the NMSP's 6th Central Committee meeting in 2005. In 2008, Nai Aung Naing split from the MNLA and formed the junta-aligned Mon Peace and Defence Front (MPDF).

 

The Mon National Liberation Army (MNLA) has the emblem of the NMSP as a cap badge in full color or in brass. The emblem is also on a red sleeve patch with inscriptions in white mon and latin script.

 

 

 

Rakhine/ Arakan

 

 

Arakan reached the zenith of its power in the Bay of Bengal during the Waithali (Vesali) (788-1018AD), Lemro and Mrauk U (1430-1785) periods, but the country steadily declined from the seventeenth century onwards. Chittagong, which was part of Arakan, was invaded and occupied by the Mughal Empire in 1666. Internal instability and dethroning of kings was very common. The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan.

On the last day of 1784, the kingdom was finally conquered by the Burmese. The famous Mahamuni Buddha image was taken as a war trophy by Crown Prince Thado Minsaw to Amarapura. (The image was relocated to Mandalay by King Mindon in 1853 when he relocated the capital to Mandalay). The Burmese, after conquering Arakan, came directly into contact with British interests in east India. Burmese seizures of Arakan's neighbouring states of Assam and Manipur and the assault on Shinmaphyu Isle, which was a British outpost in Bengal, were the instigating causes of the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-‘26). In 1826, Burma had to cede Arakan and Tenasserim to British India. Arakan was thus one of the first Burmese territories to be ceded to the British.

 

An 18th century desciption of Arakan states:

 

“The king's palace is vastly large; but not so beautiful for its structure; it is supported by large and tall pillars, made of whole trees, and covered over with gold. The apartments above are built with red and white ſandal, a  sort of eagle-wood, and other odoriferous timber. In the  middle of the palace is a great hall, called the Golden House, because the inside is entirely overlaid with gold.;  and over the raised place is fixed a canopy, hung round, with above a hundred kombalenghe, or large wedges of the ſame metal, in the shape of sugar-loaves, each weighting above forty pounds. Here likewise are to be seen seven idols, each the height of a man, cast in gold, two inches thick, and adorned with rubies, emeralds, ſaphires, and diamonds of an extraordinary size. In the center of this hall stands a square stool, of three hands-breadth, supporting a cabinet, both of pure gold, and studded with, precious stones, wherein are kept the two kanekas, or famous pendants, made in the form of pyramids, of two- rubies, each of the length of a man's little finger, and. broad at the base as a hen's egg. These jewels have been the source of bloody wars among the neighbouring potentates, not so much on account of their value, as that the prince who possesses them is suppoſed to have a right of dominion over the rest. This king, however, never wears them but on the day of his coronation

In another apartment of the palace stands the statue of. the king of Barma, commonly called Brama, murdered by his subjects, which is made with so great skill as to raise admiration in the beholders, who are always very numerous, because that prince was reckoned a great ſaint, and famed for curing diseases, especially the bloody-flux, on which account they resort to his statue.

 

The government of Arrakan is chiefly in the hands of the twelve princes before mentioned; who are honoured with the title of kings, residing in the principal cities, in twelve royal palaces, with each a great seraglio, as well for their women as thofe they educate for the king of all the rest, who keeps his court in the city of Arrakan.

 

This monarch affects as lofty titles as any of his neighbours ; styling himself emperor of Arrakan, possessor of the white elephant (C), with the two Kenekas, and by virtue of them, rightful heir of Pegu and Brama; lord of the twelve Boyoni of Bengal, and of the twelve kings (meaning those in Arrakan) who lay the highest hair of their heads under the soles of his feet. His usual residence is in the city of Arrakan; but it is customary with him in summer to spend two months in a kind of progress by water to Orietan; in which he is attended by his nobility, in boats, so artfully contrived and disposed, that they appear rather like a floating palace or city, than what they are. In this progress he does not omit to administer justice ; but hears causes as regularly as when at land. One pretence for this maritime journey is to visit the pagod of Quiay Poragray, their supreme deity; to whom he daily sends a sumptuous dinner. .......

 

(C) This famous white elephant was wrested from the king of Siam, by the sovereign of Pegu; in 1567. It was taken by the King of Tangu, at the surrender of Pegu city ; in 1599 and delivered to the King of Arrakan soon after.” [3]

 

The Royal Palace in Arakan, 1676.

On an engraving entitled d’Coninclyke Hooftstadt Arrakan in Wouter Schouten’s Oost-Indische Voyagie, 1676.

 

The circular emblem on the flag is a picture of a Pyu coin, minted in the second half of the first millennium AD.

Pyu-coins

 

Mahamuni Buddha

 

Mahamuna Buddha

 

It may not be an outrageaous hypothesis to think that it was ‘the statue of the king of Barma, commonly called Brama, murdered by his subjects, which is made with so great skill as to raise admiration in the beholders, who are always very numerous, because that prince was reckoned a great ſaint, and famed for curing diseases, especially the bloody-flux, on which account they resort to his statue’, symbolizing the sovereign(ty) of Arakan, which was actually transported to Amarapurna by crown prince Thado Minsaw. The changing of the name into Mahamuni Buddha, probably by king Mindon in 1853, may have had political reasons.

In any case, the statue is royally crowned and is dressed in full royal dress, which fits more a king than a buddha. It still attracts numerous admirers.

In Shwedagon pagoda in Rangoon there are statues of some six buddha’s in royal dress which may actually be portraits of as many kings from the later Taungu-Dynasty (1531-1731).

 

 

Armed Forces

 

Western Command Shoulder Patch

 

In Rakhine / Arakan the Western Command is active. Its headquarters are in Ann

 

Shan / မိုင်းတႆး

 

 

The Shans formed their principality of Mogaung, north of Bhamo in 1215 A.D. The fall of the First Myanmar Empire of Bagan in 1287 enabled the Shan to establish their rule over northern Myanmar until 1531 when they were pushed onto the Shan plateau. Shan hereditary rulers, Sambwas, have officially enjoyed their traditional privileges until 1959. Previously the region was known as the Shan States and was divided into the Northern and Southern Shan States. Most of these became incorporated into the Federated Shan States in 1922. On Myanmar’s independence in 1948, the Federated Shan States were integrated with Wa States (bordering with China) to form a state of the Union of Burma.

For the history of the Shan see: http://www.taigov.org/history/default.html

 

Seal of the Federated Shan States

The seal of the Federated Shan States probably dates back to 1922. It shows a globe charged with the map of the federation supported by two tigers reguardant and crested by a fivepointed star and an Om sign radiant. The legend reads: SHAN GOVERNMENT and FEDERATED SHAN STATES in shan and latin script.

 

Flag of Shan State

 

1. The design of the national flag was sanctioned at the Panglong Treaty conference in 1947.

2. The size of the flag is (5ft. Í 3ft = 152.4 Í 91.4 cm)

3. Diameter of the Moon is (1½ ft = 45.7 cm)

4. The breath of the three colors: yellow, green and red (1 ft = 30.48 cm) each.

 

The meaning of the colors:

1. Yellow means religion and race

2. Green means forest, rich in natural resources, people and peace

3. Red means bravery

4. White means purity

 

Shan State ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်

 

Since the 1960s, Shan State has become one of the centers of insurgent ethnic movements seeking to gain greater autonomy or a federal status, with some groups aiming at separation from the Union of Myanmar.

The Shan State Army was established in 1964 by merging the Shan National Front, one of the largest Shan rebel organizations, with the Shan State Independence Army and the Kokang Resistance Force. It has since been the main and best organized Shan rebel force.

 

Shan State paper money, 1964-’65.

Showing the emblem of the Shan State Army and the seal of Shan State.

 

The emblem of Shan State or Tai-land on this banknote consists of the globe and the map supported by the two lions and crsed with a star and the Om sign. The legend on the scroll below reads GOVERNMENT OF TAILAND and the same in shan-script.

The emblem of the armed forces consist of a spear and a sword in saltire, crested with a five-pointed star and surrounded by a garland of ears of rice.

 

On April 17, 2005 the Shan State made a Declaration of Independence and the Shan Government was elected by the people. It uses the flag and the seal of the first Federated Shan States as depicted above.

 

Armed Forces

 

Shan State, with many ethnic groups, is the home to several armed ethnic armies. While the military government has signed ceasefire agreements with most groups, vast areas of the state, especially those east of Thanlwin river, remain outside the central government's control, and in recent years have come under heavy ethnic-Chinese economic and political influence, whereas other areas are under the control of military groups such as the Shan State Army.

 

Shan State Army Emblem (ancient)

(Gen. Yawd Serk)

Shan State Army Emblem (present)

 

Shan State Army Cap Badge

 

Shan State Army Flag (ancient)

 

Present Shan State National Army Flag

 

                

 

Burma National Army

 

At the same time three Burma / Myanmar central government commands are active in Shan State:

 

                 

 

1. North Eastern Command which has it headquarters in Lashio.

2. Eastern Command which has it headquarters in Taunggyi

 

Shoulder Patch

 

3. Triangle Region Command which has it headquarters in Kyaingtong

 

Divisions

 

Ayeyarwady/ Irrawaddy

 

 

Formerly part of Bago / Pegu. The flag shows three blue waves and the map of the Irrawaddy delta.

 

Armed Forces

 

South Westrn Command Shoulder Patch

 


The South Western Command is active in Ayeyarwady. Its headquarters are in Pathein (Bassein)

 

Bago / Pegu

 

 

For centuries the Mons were known to the Bamars as Talaings, probably meaning People from Telingana. By the 9th century A.D. the Mons had been settled in the Ayeyarwady Delta and in the Sittoung valley. (See: Hanthawaddy Kingdom).

After the fall of Bagan in 1287, there was prolonged struggle for supremacy between the Bamars and Mons which lasted until 1757 when the Mons were defeated by King Alaungpaya.

Pegu was annexed by the British in 1852 and renamed Lower Burma.

Mon State was constituted on 3 January 1974 of that part of Tanintharyi Division comprising the former Mawlamyine and Thaton districts.

 

Flag and Emblem

 

The Hinta or Brahminy duck is a symbol of the Mon people who believe their former capital Bago (= Pegu) was founded on a site where a pair of Hintha had dwelt. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Bago was Myanmar’s greatest sea port. Completely destroyed by King Alaungpaya in 1757, it was partially rebuilt by King Bodawpaya.

Pictures of the Hintha bird show duck-like birds but they may be geese as well as ducks. In the Chinese rank system the goose (Anser) is the insignia of a civil official of the fourth rank. A Mandarin-duck (Aix galericulata - Anatinæ) is the insignia of a civil official of the seventh rank. The Shoepaundogee, the Royal Burmese barge, had the shape of a Mandarin-duck.[4]

 

The Shoepaundogee, the Royal Golden Barge by Michael Symes, 1795

 

An old flag of uncertain origin with a hintha is supposed to be of the Mon. It is green with a yellow bird and is dated about 1500:

 

 

The Hintha bird based Hantha Thana Throne of Mandalay was made from a kind of hardwood Thingan sometimes called the Rock Dhamma. This was kept in the Zaytawun pavilion set behind the Glass Palace. This was also where foreign dignitaries had their insignia. Probably it was styled after the throne of the Mon-people.

 

Present flag of Bago Division

 

Armed Forces

 

Shoulder Patch

 

The Southern Command is active in Bago. Its headquarters are in Toungoo

 

Magwe

 


Armed Forces

 

Southern Command Shoulder Patch

 

In Magwe the Southern Command is active. It has its headquarters in Toungoo

 

Mandalay

 

                       

The flag of Mandalay Division shows a picture of the Royal Palace surrounded by a garland of ears of rice.

Amarapura, near Mandaly, was the residence of the Konbaung Kings 1783-1823 / 1837-’57.

 

The Royal Palace in Amarapura (Mandalay), 1795

In the middle is King Bodawpaya ( 1782-1819) on his throne. [5]

 

Armed Forces

 

Central Command Shoulder Patch

 

The Central Command  is active in the city and has its headquarters there

 

Sagaing

 

 

Sagaing is a town in Mandalay Division located on the bank of the Ayeyarwady River. Sagaing was the capital of a Shan kingdom in northern Myanmar after the fall of Bagan around 1322 A.D. It served again as the capital of the Konbaung Dynasty from 1760 to 1764.

The flag of Sagaing shows a lion or chinthe.

In Burmese legends, lions are noted for their bravery and are considered to be the best guardians of religious shrines and edifices.

It is common to see statues of lions in front of, or around, the pagodas in Burma.


Armed Forces

 

North Western Command  Shoulder Patch

 

In Sagaing the North Western Command  is active. It has its headquarters in Monywa.

 

Thanintharyi

 

Flag of Thanintharyi

 

Coastal Region Command Shoulder Patch

 

In Thanintharyi the Coastal Region Command is active. It has its headquarters in Myeik.

 

Yangon / Rangoon

 

Present flag of Rangoon Division

 

This flag is identical with the flag of the Burmese kings residing in Yangon (until 29 June 1857).

 

Commissioners of the Port of Rangoon

 

 

Burma being administered directly by the British Government, no emblem symbolizing the Burmese administration was adopted.

Nevertheless, the lower government of the “Commisioners of the Port of Rangoon” (instituted 1880) bore a badge on the red ensign consisting of a blue disc charged with a frame containing a scene of the Port of Rangoon, surmounted by a the pagoda of Shwemoktaw, all within a royally crowned yellow bordure with the legend COMMISIONERS PORT OF RANGOON. [6]

The Commisioners were abolished in 1954 and  has been replaced by the Myanmar Port Authority, founded 1989. This authority has an emblem of its own:

 

Myanmar Port Authority achievement (after1989)

 

Armed Forces

 

Shoulder Patch

 

In the city the Yangon Command is active. It has its headquarters in Mayangone Township-Kone-Myint-Thar

 

 

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© Hubert de Vries

 

 

 



[1] Flag Bulletin XIV: 4, 1975; Flagmaster 036, 01.03.1982.

[2] Picture provided by Jaume Ollé Casals

[3] Hedendaagsche Historien van Siam, Kamboja, Kochinchina, Tongkine, Oost-Tartarye het Ryk der Kitan, der Kin en der Sifa van Tufan. VIIe deel. Te Amsterdam bij de Wed. G. de Groot & Zn. MDCCLXXII.

[4]  Symes, Michael An account of an embassy to the kingdom of Ava, sent by the Governor-General of India, in the year 1795, Plate 424.

[5] From: Symes, Michael: An account of an Embassy to the kingdom of Ava. 1827.

[6] ) Drawing of the Flags in use at the present time by Various Nations. Admiralty, London 1915.