Nrs  201-257




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Papal residence in Rome 1376 -


201 Urbanus VI



Bartolomeo Prignani belonged to a noble Neapolitan family and was the son of Nicol Prignani and of Margerita Brancaccio.

His tomb, in the Grotto Vaticane, shows two shields with his arms: Or, an eagle Azure, surmounted by tiaras. Two columns from his monuments now form part of te tabernacle  of the statue of St Peter in the Grotte, and have on the capitals the same shield with the eagle.


Arms of Urbanus VI

on his tomb in the Vatican Grottoes


Arms: Or, an eagle Azure

Crown: A papal tiara


1378-1410: In Bourges: Two keys in saltire (Galbr. fig 39)


202 *Clemens VII**



Robert of Geneva was the son of Amadeus III Count of Geneva and of Mahaut d’Auvergne.

The seals of the counts of Geneva show them to have originally borne Checky gold and azure. This was modifief by a reductio of the squares into Nine pieces gold and azure or into Golde a cross azure quarterpieced but the tincture are oft reversed.


Arms of Clemens VII

Portal Vienne Cathedral

Arms: Equipollé Or and Azure

Crown: A Papal tiara

Supporters: Two angels

Clement VII was the only pope to use an armorial seal, which shows supporters, an eagle and two leopards.



203 Bonifatius IX



Pietro Tomacelli belonged to a Neapolitan family whose nobility is extolled by all writers, though the names of his parents are never mentioned. A connection with the Tomacelli house, claimed by the Cibo family of Genoa, does not seem capable of proof.

Boniface´s arms, Gules a bend chequy Argent and Azure, can still be seen on the morse and on the chair of his statue in the cloister of San Paolo fuori le Muira, on a manuscript in the Vatican Library and in mosaic on the background of the kneeling statue of Boniface VIII at St John  Lateran. They were also on his monument in Old St. Peter´s of which Ciacconius gives an illustration.


Foto H.d.V. 05.05.2005

Boniface VIII at St John  Lateran


204 Benedictus XIII



Pedro de Luna was the son of Juan Martinez de Luna, Baron of Ilveca, and of Maria Perez de Gotor. His arms, Gules, a crescent reversed Argent, and a base Argent, which can be seen in the windows of the cathedral at Bourges, on a keystone in the cathedral of Carpentras, and in the Book of the Council of Constance, show him to have belonged to the Martinez de Luna, the first of the three branches of the great Aragonese house whose members were ricos hombres de natura from the time of Alfonso III. (Galbreath p. 81. Drawing of u. Richental, colours added).


205 Innocentius VII


Innocentius VII, arms

 (Modern rendering)


Cosimo Migliorati was the son of Gentile Migliorati of Sulmona and of Mascia Orderin of the family of the counts of Marsia and of Valva. Examples of his arms, Gold a ben azure charged with a comet gold and cotised azure, are extremely rare, as they were desryed by the Roman populace in the riots of 1405. Thew only contemporary example that has come to light is the remains of a fresco in the Palazzo del Capitano at Todi.

The Pope’s familiy died out in 1500; yet the same arms are borne by another family of the same name, to which the mother of Benedict XV belonged.


Coat of arms in Gesta Pontificum Romanorum by Giovanni PalazzoVenice 1688


206 Gregorius XII


Angelo Correr was the son of a Venetian patrician Niccolo Correr and of Polissena N.... His arms, Party per fess Argent and Azure a lozenge throughout counterchanged, appear in Richental’s Book of the Council of Constance, in the cathedral of Siena, on his monument at Recanati, and, surmounted by a chief of the Papacy, on a bronze badge in the Museo Correr at Venice.


(Galbreath p. 81. Drawing of U. Richental, colours added)


207 Alexander V



Pietro Filargo was born in Crete of unknown parents. His arms: Azure, a star of eight wavy rays surrounded by eight molets all gold,, can be seen in the windows of the cathedral of Bourges, on his coins, and on his much restored tomb in the church of San Fracesco in Bologna


Arms of Akexander V,  Bourges Cathedral (Window 04)


The arms augmented with a chief of the keys in saltire and crowned with a papal tiara supported by two angels.

Supporters: Two (three-) angels


On his tomb in Bologna

With Prosperity for supporter


Also: From a 16th cent. manuscript:


208 Johannes XXIII



Baldassare Cossa was the son of Giovanni Count of Troia and belonged to a family which originally came from Ischia.

His arms are party fess-wise, in chief a human leg (cossa) silver, in base vert three bends silver, all within a border indented gold.


Arms of John XXIII in a manuscript


Arms: Argent three bends Vert, and a chief Gules a leg bend at the knee Gules, all within a bordure engrailed Or


Babst  Johannes der drey vn zweintzigest

in the Chronik des Konzils zu Konstanz,


209 Martinus V



In 1417, on the death of Bishop Jacopo, who was a partisan of Pope John XXIII, the clergy wished to proceed to the election of a new bishop, but the people prevented them, proclaiming as bishop Nicolò Vivari, the nominee of Pope Gregory XII. Again in 1433 the clergy wished to revive their right of electing a bishop, but the intervention of Pope Eugenius IV prevented them.

Oddo Colonna was the son of Agapito Colonna and of Caterina Conti, and belonged to one of the greatest baronial families of Rome. The Colonna arms are, Gules, a column Argent. From the end of the 14th century, the column is usually surmounted by a gold crown supposed to have been granted by the Emperor Louis of Bavaria to reward the assistance of the Colonnesi in 1329. Martin V’s arms can be seen in various books of arms, on his tomb at St John Lateran, on his coins, in the Hall of the Notaries at Perugia, on the Palazzo del Senatore in Rome, at Milan and at Viterbo, and as far afield as the Tower of San Giorgio in Rhodes. (Galbreath p. 82. Drawing U. Richental, colours added).


Simone Ghini, Grabdenkmal Martins V.; Rom. San Giovanni in Laterano.

Während seines Pontifikats, das von 1417-1431 währte, widmete sich Marin V. mit Hingabe dem Wiederaufbau Roms. Er bemühte sich auch um Frieden und um eine stabile politische Lage in Italien.


210 *Clemens VIII**



Gil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón, was one of the antipopes of the Avignon Papacy, reigning from 10 June 1423 to 26 July 1429 as Clement VIII. He was born in Teruel between 1369–1370 and a member of the Avignon curia. When Alfonso V of Aragon reached an agreement with Pope Martin V, Sanchez Muñoz abdicated, made his submission and was appointed bishop of Mallorca. He died on 28 December 1446.

His arms are: Quarterly, fist and fourth, gules a cross flory gold, plain voided of the field, second and third, gold plain.

His tomb in Mallorca Cathedral


The arms Sanchez Muñoz


211 *Benedictus XIV*



Benedict XIV was the name used by two closely related minor antipopes of the 15th century. The first, Bernard Garnier became antipope in 1424 and died c. 1429. The second, Jean Carrier, became antipope c. 1430 and apparently left office, whether by death or resignation, by 1437.


Neither of these claimants was supported by more than a very small faction within the Church. They claimed to be the successors to Benedict XIII, one of the parties to the great Papal Schism. In 1417, the Council of Constance resolved the Schism, proclaiming Martin V the new Pope and demanding that Benedict XIII renounce his claim. Benedict XIII, however, remained at a castle in Peñíscola (kingdom of Valencia) and continued to maintain supporters. He died in 1423, but, the day before his death, he created four cardinals loyal to him, in order to ensure the Avignon line. Three of these cardinals met and elected Antipope Clement VIII. However, one of Benedict XIII's cardinals, Jean Carrier, disputed the validity of this election. Carrier, acting as the College of Cardinals by himself, elected Bernard Garnier, who took the name Pope Benedict XIV, instead.[2] Carrier was the archdeacon of Rodez, near Toulouse, and Garnier had been the sacristan of Rodez.

Garnier conducted his office secretly and was known as the "hidden pope": a letter from the Count of Armagnac to Joan of Arc indicates that only Carrier knew Benedict XIV's location. Garnier's reign as Benedict XIV ended at his death in 1429 or 1430, although he named four of his own cardinals, one of whom was named Jean Farald.



212 Eugenius IV



Gabriele Condulmero was the son of Angelo Condulmero and belonged to a wealthy merchants’ family of Venice, some of whose branches at various times entered the ranks of the Ventian nobility, though the one to which the Pope belonged did not succeed in doing so until 1687. His mother Beriola Correr was the sister of one Pope, Gregory XII, the mother of a second, Eugenius, and the grandmother of a third, Paul II.

            Eugenius IV’s arms, Azure, a bend Argent, appear on his coins, in the illuminations of various manuscripts in the Vatican Library, in the archives of Dijon, and in the Stuttgart Public Library, in the windows of the cathedrals of Evreux and Carpentras, and in the paintings of the Hall of the Notaries at Perugia. The shields on his tomb at San Salvatore in Lauro date from a much later period. (Galbreath p. 83. Drawing from the Stuttgarter Wappenbuch, colours added)


213 *Felix V**



Arms: Gules, a cross Argent


Amadeus Count and Duke of Savoy was the son of Count Amadeus VII and of Bonne de Berry. His arms Gules a cross silver can be see on numberless coins, seals, manuscripts, on the bell presntred by him to the cathedral of Basle and a keystone retaining some, at least of its original colouring in the abbey cloisters of St. Maurice d’Agaun. The cross of Savoy appears on the seals of the counts of Maurienne and Savoy in 1143, and at the present day in the arms of the kingdom of Italy (until 1945).


214 Nicolaus V



Gold Ducat of Pope Nicholas V

214 -1447

Pappa nicolaus quintus servus servor(um)


Spoleto Castle  ground floor. Nicolas V


Well,  Spoleto Castle


215 Calixtus III**



Arms of Calixtus III, of Cardinal Rodrigo Borja and of Podrio-Luiz de Borja. Bas-relief in the Ponte Moll.

The small Martinez de Luna shield in the corner is probaly the shiled of the master of works


Alonzo de Borja was the son of Domingo de Borja and of Francisca de Marti. The Borja family, whom the Italians called Borgia, appear in the 14th century among the lesser nobility of the province of Valentia.

            The arms of Calixtus III were, Or, an ox gules feeding on a terrace vert, and a border Or, charged with with tufts of grass vert. These latter charges have been taken to be flames, garbs, hearts, crescents and double crowns of Aragon, the Borgia badge. The tincture of the border is frequently given as gules, but all the contemporary examples, inasmuch as they are coloured, show it to have been gold, and the charges on it green.

            Calixtus III’s arms appear on his coins, in relief on the Rocca of Viterbo, on the Ponte Molle near Rome, in a fine manuscript in the Riccardi Library of Florence, in the Hall of the Notaries at Perugia, on the ceiling of Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the Pursuivant Ingeram’s book of arms. A fine stone relief of his arms as cardinal is in the Borgia Apartments in the Vatican. (G. p. 84)

Arms of Calixtus III, the Church and the Church of St Peter


216 Pius II



Enea-Silvio de’ Piccolomini was the son of Silvio Piccolomini and of Vittoria Forteguerri, and belonged to one of the most important Sienese families of the later Middle Ages.

            The Piccolomini arms, Argent, a cross Azure with five crescents Or, appear first in 1279, and very frequently afterwards, on the painted covers of the Sienese tax-account books, the Libri di Biccherna e di Gabella, which form what is practically a Golden Book of the families of that city.

            Fine examples of Pius II’s arms, painted by Pinturicchio, may be seen in the library of Siena Cathedral. They also appear on his coins, on his monument in Sant’Andrea del Valle, in manuscripts at Pienza, Siena and the vatican Library, on numerous reliefs in Rome and in Siena and in a book of arms belonging to the Tiroler Adelsmatrikelgenossenschaft at Innsbruck.

(Galbreath, p. 85. Lisini: Le Tavolette dipinte di Biccherna et di Gabella del R. Archivio di Stato in Siena, Siena, 1901. Drawing from the Pfälzer Wappenbuch, colours added).


The crowned arms of the Vatican an of Pope Pius II in alliance

Pfälzer Wappenbuch (Galbr. fig. 92)


Foto H.d.V, 2010

The arms of Pius II with a chief of the Vatican, supported by two hovering  angels


217 Paulus II



Pietro Barbo was the son of Nicolo Barbo, a Venetian patrician, and of Polissena Condulmero, sister of Eugenius IV. Parts of his monument from Old St Peters’s are now in the Museo Petriano.

            Many fine examples of Paul II’s arms, Azure, a lion Argent and a bendlet Or over all, are to be seen in Rome especially in the palazzo Venezia, in the adjoining church of San Marco, and on the fragments of his monument in the Museo Petriano. They also appear on his coins, on leaden tiles in the Vatican, in manuscripts at Perugia, in the Vatican Library and at St. Gall. (G. pp. 85-86)


The arms of Paul II between the arms

of Rome, the Senate of the People of Rome, the Church and the Church of St. Peter

 (Galbr. Pl. V.)


Foto H.d.V. 2010

The arms of Paul II in the Vatican.


218 Sixtus IV




Francesco della Rovere, the son of Lionardo della Rovere and of Lucchina Magnone, belonged to a family which, though settled at Savona in the 14th century, originally came from the neighbouring hamlet of Albissola.

            It is more than improbable that there is any relationship between this Pope’s family and the great Peidmontese house of Rovere, counts of Vinovo, but Sixtus attached great importance to this claim which he was already making while still a cardinal. He consequently assumed the arms of the Piedmontese family, Azure an oak-tree uprooted Or, which can be seen everywhere in the Sistine Chapel, on the Palazzo del Senatore, and in innumerable other places. The Savona family are said really to have borne, Azure, an oak-tree vert, and several manuscripts in the Vatican Library as well as the Statutes of Perugia in the Public Library of that city show a green oak-tree wit gold or yellow acorns. The same tinctures appear on the great Flemish tapestry and on an Italian embroidered altar-front, both in the treasury of S. Francesco at Assisi. (G. p. 86)



219 Innocentius VIII



Giovanni-Battista Cibo of Genoa, the son of Arano Cibo and of Theodorina da Mari, claimed descent from the Neapolitan house to which Boniface IX belonged. He even had the assertion placed on the latter’s statue, but the claim, based on a similarity of arms, is more than doubtful.

            The Cibo arms, Gules, a bend checy Argent and Azure and a chief of the Republic of Genoa, Argent a cross Gules, appear on the Pope’s tomb, on his coins, in the Hall of the Notaries at Perugia, in various manuscripts in the Vatican Library, and in Innocent’s Belvedere in the Vatican. (Galbreath p. 87. Drawing from MS Vat. gr. 1208 in the Vatican Library, colours added.)

Arms of Innocence VIII


Arms: The arms of Boniface IX under a chief Argent a cross Gules


Coat of Arms of pope Innocent VIII

Supported by Two Angels, by Benedetto Buglioni (~1459-1521), 1484-87

Glazed terracotta, Æ 121 cm (Musei Vaticani, Vatican)


220 Alexander VI



Rodrigo de Borja y Borja was the son of Jofrè de Borja y Doms and of Isabel de Borja sister of Calixtus III. The arms borne by Alexander and all the descendants of his grandfather Rodrigo –Gil de Borja and of Sibilla Doms, the heiress of that family, are Party, dexter, Or an ox gules feeding on a terrace vert, a border Or, charged with eight tufts of grass vert, (Borja), and sinister, barry of six gold and sable (Doms). It should be noticed that the border remains intact along the palar line, and is not suppressed as it would be in French or English heraldry.

            Superb examples of Alexander VI’s arms are to be seen in the Borgia Apartments in the Vatican, in the castle of St. Angelo, in manuscripts of the Vatican Library and at Innsbruck, on the ceiling of Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the cathedral of Modena.


Alexander VI, miniatuur uit de „Messa di Natale” van Alexander VI.

Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.


Arms of Alexander VI


221 Pius III



Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, son of Nanne Todeschini of Sarteno near Siena and of Laudomia  Piccolomini, sister of Pius II, assumed his uncle’s name and arms early in life and is not believed ever to have borne his paternat coat which is apparntly unknown.

As Pius III eigend for oly 26 days, examples of his arms, Silver a cross azure with five crescents gold, are rare, and probably the only ones in existence  are to be found on his monument, now in Sant’ Andrea del Valle, on his coins and medals and on his monumen in the cathedral of Siena.


Achievement of  of Pius III

On his tomb in Sant’Andrea del Valle


Medal of Pope Pius III, 1503,

at the occasion of his election, (print of 1664).

Unsigned, by G. Paladino . Æ 44,64 mm [1]


222 Julius II



Giuliano della Rovere was the son of Raffaello della Rovere, brother of Sixtus IV, and of Teodora Manerola,

His arms, Azure an oak-tree uprooted gold, may be seen in stained-glass indos of Santa Maria del Popolo and in manuscripts in the Vatican Library; they are also carved in the castle of Sant’Angelo, and painted in Raphael’s stanze in the Vatian. They appear as well in the windows of San Francesco at Assisi but there the tree has green leaves and yellow acorns.







W.: Rood, twee gekruiste sleutels en een gouden koord. Tiara met infulae. (Museum van het Vaticaan Stanze di Rafaelo Sala dell'incendio di Borgo, gewelf) (XI.'94).

W.: Rood, twee gekruiste gouden sleutels en een gouden koord. Tiara met infulae. (Als voor, Sala della Segnatura) (XI'94).



Tiara of Julius II by Caradosso. Watercolour by Bertoni. British Museum. The knob, upheld by demi-dragons, was added by Gregory XIII(1572-’85) (Buoncompagni) Papal Her. Fig. 36.


223 Leo X



Giovanni de‘ Medici was the son of Lorenzo de’ Medici, il Magnifico, andof Clarice Orsini.

The Florentine Medici frist achieved political importance during the revolt of the Ciompi, and the story of their further rise needa no repetition. Their arms show a number of red balls, generally  six, representing the physician’s pill, but the arrangement as well as the number varies. The establishd arms originall were, Gulef six roundels, gules in orle, but in 1465 Louis XI of France granted to Pietro di Cosimo de’ Medici an augmentation of the French arms, replaciing the uppermost roundel by one of azure chaged with three gold fleurs-de-lis; this roinde is frequently drawn of a larger size than the others.



224 Hadrianus VI




Arms: Quarterly, 1&4: Or, three wolfhooks Vert; 2&3: Argent a lion Sable


Tomb of Hadrianus VI in the church of Santa Maria dell’ Anima, Rome

By Alberto Galli, 1523 (Coll Rijksmuseum Amsterdam)


225 Clemens VII



Giulio de’ Medici was the illegitimate son of Giuliano de’ Medici and a certain Fioretta. A dispensation for defect of birth was granted to him by Leo X, followed by a declaration that his parents had been secretly married.

Clement made use of the same arms as Leo X, and examples of them are to be seen on his tomb at Santa Maria sopra Minerva as well as on the pedestals of the statues of St Peter and St Paul on the Ponte Sant’Angelo. One of his medas shows his arms placed on a large cross of Malta commemorating the fact that he had belonged to the Order of St John.



Arms: Or, five balls Gules 2, 2, 1 and a sixth Azure charged with three fleurs de lys Or 2 and 1, in chief [2]



226 Paulus III



Alessandro Farnese, son of Pier-Luigi Farnese and of Giovanella Caetani, belonged to a small feudal family of the Patrimonio of St. Peter.

The Farnese arms were originally, a gold shield strewn with blue fleurs-de-lis. During the 15th century the shield was charged with a variable number of fleurs-de-lis, of which good examples are to be seen on the walls of the Palazzo Farnese at Viterbo. The arms as finally born are, Or, six fleurs-de-lis Azure, three, two and one. Fine achievements of Paul himself are frequent in Rome, among them those in the castles of Sant’Angelo, on the Palazzo Farnese, and on a house in the Via Giulia.



Coat of arms of Pope Paul III Farnese on Palazzo Farnese Rome


Foto H.d.V. 11 '94

Arms of Paul III, Stairs of  Todi, cathedral


Arms of Pope Paul III. (Alexander Farnese),

 from a design by Antonio de Sangallo (1482-1546).


Foto H.d.V. 2010

Achievement of Paul III with angels for supporters.

Museum of the Vatican, Stanze de Rafaelo, Sala de Costantino, windowshutters


Arms: Or, sis fleurs de lys Azure 3, 2 and 1

Crest: Two keys in saltire and a tiara.

Supporters: Two angels


227 Julius III



Giovanni-Maria Ciocchi del Monte was the son of Monte San Savino and of Chistofora Saracena of Siena. His grandfather Fabiano sometines calle himself del Monte from the name of his birthplace, and both the Pope end his uncle, Cardinal Antonio, consistenly suppressed the familiy name.

The Ciocchi arms Azure a be gules edged gold charged with three triple munts gold, between two laurel wreaths also gold, can be seen on Fabiano’s tomb at Monte San Savino, as well as on the Pope’s coins, medals, bookbindings, etc. The mounts are generally set bend-sinister-wise, sometimes, though more rarely, they are set bend-wise. The laurel wreaths genearlly consist of a single branch bent in a circle. As for the tinctures, tey appear authoritatively on the grant allowing the counts Spaa of Terni to bear Julius III’s arms ob a chief above their own.


Achievement of Pope Julius III

Courtyard of Palazzo Spada

The mounts set palewise. Two youths for supporters


Coat of Arms of Pope Julius III Flanked by Personifications of Faith and Charity (ca. 1550)

By Nicolò dell' Abate (ca1509-1571)

Pen and brown ink and wash, with white opaque watercolor, on light brown toned paper.  (213 x 273 mm) [3]


The shiels is supporterd by allegories of Faith and Charity.


Arms: Azure, a bend Gules edged Or, charged with three triple mounts Or, between two slings Or.

Crown and crest: A Tiara and keys in saltire

Supporters: two youths / allegories of Faith and Charity


228 Marcellus II



Marcello Cervini, son of Ricciardo Cervini and of Cassandr Benci, came of two of the noblest families of Montepulciano.

The Pope’s arms, Azure nine wheat-stalks gold in groups of three, growing from a base vert, and a fawn (cervino, not a stag) gold at rest before them, can be seen on coins struck during his three weeks’pontificate, on the Cervini palace at Montepulciano, on the façade of te cathedral of Gubbio, and on his portrait published by  Panvinio in 1568


Arms of Marcellus II

Palazzo Cervini, Montepulciano


Also (in color) :


229 Paulus IV



Gian-Pietro Carafa of Naples was the son of Gian-Antonio arafa Baron of Sant’Angelo della Scala and of Vittoria Camponeschi Countess of Montorio.

Though Carafa arms, Gules three bars silver, with various differences, can still be found on many Neapolitan buildings, achievents of Paul IV are very rare in Rome, as after the deaths of the Poped, a decree of the Roman people orderedthe removal of every visible memorial of the “tyrnnical house of Caraffa”; one example however exists in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva where the Pope was bried, and another in the Sala Ducae in the Vatican.



Arms: Barry of seven Gules and Argent

Crown and crest: A Tiara and keys in saltire

Supporters: Two putti


(S. Giovanni di Laterano, XI'94).



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 © Hubert de Vries  2020-09-16






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