The Aquila Valahica

The Arms

The Achievement



Back to Valachia

Rulers of Walachia


In 1241–1242, the kingdom of Hungary suffered a major blow in the wake of the Mongol invasion of Europe. After Hungary was invaded by the Mongols in 1241, the Hungarian army was defeated disastrously at the Battle of Mohi. King Béla IV first fled the battlefield, and then the country after the Mongols pursued him to its borders. During the Mongols' Russian campaign, some 40,000 Cumans, members of a nomadic tribe of pagan Kipchaks, were driven west of the Carpathian Mountains. There, the Cumans appealed to King Béla IV of Hungary for protection. The Iranian Jassic people came to Hungary together with the Cumans after they were defeated by the Mongols. Cumans constituted perhaps up to 7–8% of the population of Hungary in the second half of the 13th century. Over the centuries they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population, and their language disappeared, but they preserved their identity and their regional autonomy until 1876.

In a diplom issued  on 2 June 1247 King Bela IV of Hungary explains his policy for repopulating,  defending and restoring his authority in Valachia which had heavily suffered by the invasions.

Some rulers of Valachia are mentioned in the diplom.[1]


Litovoi The diploma granted territories to the Knights Hospitaller in the Banate of Severin and Cumania, “with the exception of the land of the kenazate of Voivode Litovoi,” which the king left to the Vlachs “as they had held it”. The territory of Litovoi comprised northern Oltenia (Romania).

Seneslau The king’s diploma also refers to a certain voivode Seneslau who held central and southern Muntenia (i.e., the territories along the rivers Argeş and Dâmboviţa.) Although the names of Litovoi and Seneslau are of Slavic origin, they are expressly said to be Vlachs (Olati) in the king's diploma. It seems that Litovoi was the most powerful of all the local rulers. His territories were exempted from the grant to the knights Hospitaller, but half of the royal taxes generated by his land (terra Lytua) was assigned to the Hospitallers – except for the income from the Haţeg district (terra Harszoc in the diploma’s only surviving, papal copy), which the king kept all for himself. According to the Romanian historian Ioan Aurel Pop, the king had grabbed Haţeg from Litovoi shortly before 1247.

In 1277 (or between 1277 and 1280), Litovoi was at war with the Hungarians over lands king Ladislaus IV of Hungary (1272–1290) claimed for the crown, but for which Litovoi refused to pay tribute. Litovoi was killed in battle. This event is recounted in the king’s letter of grant of 8 January 1285, in which king Ladislaus IV donated villages in Sáros County (today in Slovakia) to Master George, son of Simon, who had been sent against Litovoi.

Farcaş, also Farkas, Farkaş or Farcas, was a cneaz (local chieftain or ruler) als omentioned in the diploma issued by king Béla IV. Farcaş held a one of the kenazates given to the knights by the king. His kenazate lay in the northeast of modern Oltenia (in Romania).

Farcaş (Farkas) is a typical Hungarian name meaning ‘wolf’. The Romanian historian Ioan Aurel Pop suggests that his name is mentioned in Hungarian translation in the diploma, and Farcaş's kenazate was one of the incipient Romanian states south of the Carpathian Mountains


John, also Joan or Ioan, was a cneaz (local chieftain or ruler)was also mentioned in the diploma. John held a kenazate which was given to the knights by the king. His kenazate lay in southern Oltenia.

The Romanian historian Ioan Aurel Pop suggests that the kenazate of John was one of the incipient Romanian states south of the Carpathian Mountains. In the diploma, his name is given in its Latin form (Johannes), and so contains no hint of the nationality of its bearer


Rulers of Walachia

from the House of Basarab







Basarab I the Founder


Nicolae Alexandru


Vladislav I


Radu I


Dan I


Mircea I the Old


Vlad I the Usurper


Mircea I the Old


Mihail I


Radu II the Bald


Dan II


Radu II the Bald


Dan II


Alexandru I Aldea


Vlad II the Dragon


Basarab II


Mircea II the Younger


Vlad II the Dragon


Mircea II the Younger


Vladislav II


Vlad III the Impaler


Vladislav II


Vlad III the Impaler


Radu III the Fair


Basarab III Laiotă the Old


Radu III the Fair


Basarab III Laiotă the Old


Radu III the Fair


Basarab III Laiotă the Old


Radu III the Fair


Basarab III Laiotă the Old


Vlad III the Impaler


Basarab III


Basarab IV


Mircea (III)


Vlad IV the Monk


Basarab IV


Vlad IV the Monk


Radu IV the Great


Mihnea I the Bad


Mircea III (IV) Miloș


Vlad V the Younger


Neagoe Basarab V




Milica of Serbia


Radu V


Vladislav III


Radu VI Bădica


Vladislav III


Radu V


Radu V


Vladislav III


Radu V


Basarab VI




Vlad VI the Drowned


Vlad VII


Radu VII Paisie


Mircea IV (V) the Shepherd


Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd


Mircea IV (V) the Shepherd


Pătrașcu the Good


Mircea IV (V) the Shepherd


Chiajna of Moldavia


Petru I the Younger


Alexandru II Mircea




Alexandru II Mircea


Catherine Salvaresso


Petru II of the Earring


Mihnea II the Turk




In heraldry the territory north of the river Danube in today’s Romania occurs in the middle of the thirteenth century after the devastating invasions of the Mongols. Several  rulers of parts of the territory are known to have been vassals of the king of Hungary who writes about them in a diplom issued in 1247. From this time arms are known of Valachian rulers strongly resembling the arms of the House of Arpad, being a barry of white and red, known from the beginning of the thirteenth century. Such a barry was also copied by the House of Basarab which ruled in Valachia from the end of the 13th century until the end of the 16th century.

The crest on the arms of the Basarab rulers is also of hungarian origin. This is an eagle sejant reguardant, printed on coins of Bela IV from the middle of the 13th century. This eagle, called Aquila  Valahica, in itself copied from Roman coins, developed into the arms of Valachia at the end of the 14th century, eased by the fact that the hungarian cimere, derived from the french cimier, both means coat of arms and crest.

A third emblem used by the Basarbs is a square cross pattée which was displayed on their helmets. This is derived from the cross pattée of the Order of St. John which was granted large territories in Valachia (the banat of Szöreny (Severin), 1247-1260).


The banners of the Knights Hospitaller, the Templars and the Oriflamme of France

By Matthew Paris ca. 1240


In this time the Armorial Wijnbergen documents the arms of the king of Valachia twice:  [2]


Le. roi de blaqui

N° 1289

Barry of ten Or and Gules, two lion’s legs in saltire Sable

Le Roi de blāqe

N° 1307

Barry of ten Or and Gules


These arms may be ascribed to the Vlach voivodes Litovoi and Seneslau who were active in Oltenia in the time of Bela IV and probably merited the somewhat grand title of king. They also may be the arms of Litovoi and his brother Barbat who succeeded him


Be it as it is, a barry occurs not long after in the arms of the voivodes of Valachia from te house of Basarab.


The House of Basarab



Line of Basarab I

Line of Dan I

Line of Mircea I

Line of Vlad I


Radu Negru (Negru Voda, Radu I)

1st Lord of the Romanian territories


Apocryphic portrait of Radu I, the Black., 1884.


Radu Negru is a legendary voivode of Wallachia; some historians consider it to be just a nickname of Thocomerius or Basarab I.


Tihomir or Radu Negru

ca.1290 - ca.1310


Basarab I (Basarab Întemeietorul)

ca.1310 - 1352

Nicolae Alexandru  co-ruler1340

son of Thocomerius; first non-legendary ruler of Wallachia.


United the voivodates on the left- and the right banks of the river Olt and enlarged his territory to the estuary of the Danube. In 1330 he resigned his vasallity to the Hungarian Crown (i.e. Charles Robert of Anjou 1308-‘42) and founded an independent state.


Tomb said to be of Basarab I

Church of the Monastery of Curtea de Argeș


At the beginning of the 20th century a team of researchers from the Commission of Historical Monuments (of which Nicolae Iorga was a member) visited the church of Curtea de Argeș. It  excavated, below a few layers of bricks, some fourteen tombs. Number 10 of these tombs, of good crafsmanship,  was thought to have been the tomb of Basarab I (†1352). even when it did not have any inscription.

The program of the tomb is as follows:


  • On the lid is a tree crested with a sun consisting of a twelve-pointed figure charged with a whirl of 24 rays.
  • On the head there is a hexagram (not shown here) and
  • On the feet is a square cross.


These symbols are the symbols of the territory (the tree), the empire or realm (the sun), of the armed authority (the hexagram) and of the administrative authority (the square cross). The sun–square cross-hexagram configuration was quitre common in the Byzantine world.

Consequently the tomb belonged to the (chief-) administrator and commander (in chief) of the realm of Walachia.


The sides are decorated with floral motives

No personal emblem can be found on the tomb, the four emblems being socio-political symbols.


Nicolae Alexandru



Son of Basarab I. no coat of arms known 


Vladislav I (Vlaicu)


son of Nicolae Alexandru; also known as Vlaicu-Vodă


He was a nephew  of the Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander (1331-1371) (his fathers-sisters husband), who bore, according to Gelre Herald:


Arms: Barry of six [Or and Vert] with a canton of Constantinople: Gules, a cross between four crosses patée encircled Or. [3]


His son John, who was a Tsar of Vidin bore:


Arms: Quarterly of Constantinople and Azure plain [4]


In February 1369 Vladislav I subdued Vidin and recognised Louis I of Hungary as his overlord in return for Severin, Amlaş, and Făgăraş. In 1373 Louis I took Severin again but the Vlachs recovered it in 1376–1377.


A like coat of arms appeared in 1478:



Arms: Argent, four bars Sable and a canton of Constantinople. [5]


Owing to the recognition of Louis I of Hungary as his overlord, a coat of arms western style was adopted by Vladislav I combining hungarian inspired bars on the shield with the hungarian eagle of Bela IV (Æ Valachia Arms) as a crest. On the helmet is a square cross which can be the symbol of administrative authority.


From the reign of Vladislaw I until the reign of Vladislav II (1447-’56) we are informed about the coat of arms of the rulers from the House of Basarab by silver coins issued by them. On the obverse of these coins is a shield and on the reverse a helmet and a crest of a bird sejant reguardant.

The arms initially consist of a parti of a barry of eight on the dexter and a plain on the sinister. To the sinister often a letter is added which is thought to have been the mark of the mint master. Also, on both sides of the coins is a legend which is often difficult to decipher. This makes the dating of the coins quite arbitrary in many cases. For that reason the coins are a quite unreliable source for determining the development of the Basarab coat of arms in the course of time.


Nevertheless the development of the Basarab coat of arms may be as follows


The crest of the Basarabs is a bird sejant reguardant, very probable an eagle. This crest is on all coins.


The arms of the Basarabs were:

a. Parted per pale, the dexter barry of eight, the sinister plain

b. Parted per pale the dexter plain and the sinister barry of eight

In some rare cases a symbol was added for difference. This is mainly the case with the last voievodes before the series came to an end with the arms of Vladislav II (1447-’57).


Ducat  of Vladislav Æ 20 mm, 1.1 g, silver

(Muz, Mun. Buc., Expoz. Numism., Colect. dr Severeanu, nr inv. 5356)


Arms: Per pale, the first barry of four, the second a crescent

Crest: Square cross X above the shield.


Reverse: eagle reguardant perched on a helmet; at left a six-pointed star, a cross, a not identified object and a ladder



On an other (and later?) coin the number of bars is augmented to eight and the crescent is removed:


Dinar of Vladislav I

MIMB/Sever  nr. inv. 872


Obv.: Arms: Per pale the dexter barry of eight and sinister plain

Rev.: Crest::  on a helmet an eagle statant reguardant


This matches with the arms found in a tomb:



In 1920 a tomb in the Church of the Monastery of Curtea de Argeș was opened. In it were the remains of a prince, richly dressed in purple and crowned with a pearl-crown. The sleeves of his tunic were closed with buttons decorated with little shields:  Per pale, the dexter barry of eight pieces Or and Sable and the sinister Or plain. [6]

This makes the buried man, taking into account the rich dress, a ruler for whom Basarab I (†1352), Vladislav (†1377), or Radu I (†1385) might qualify.


Button from the dress of the Wallachian Prince

The arms per pale of a  barry Or and Sable, the sinister Or.[7]


No other coloured pictures of these arms are available.


Radu I


son of Nicolae Alexandru

Silver Ducat of Radu I, 1377-1383 AD


Obv.: Arms: Per pale, the first barry of eight pieces; the second the letter Θ, a globule in the center of the shield;

inner and outer pearl circles

Cyrillic legend: +IѠ DANOV VOEVODA

Rev.: Crest:  On a helmet an eagle sejant reguardant.

Cyrillic legend: +IѠ DANOV VOEV and P (for Radu)


Arms (barry of eight and sigla θ Ɵ) of the Basarab family inside an inner pearl circle.

Legend: +IѠRADOLROLVS, Sigla (IO RADOLUS WAEWODA "Me, Radu Voivod") / Walachian coat of arms - mountain eagle perched on a plummed helmet. Sigla (P) in left field.

Legend: +IѠRADOLVSL. Sigla P (IO RADOLUS "Me, Radu..."). 16 mm, 0.68 g. ref: MBR.52.


Ook deze voievode sloeg munten (denaren) en er zijn weer twee types:

1. Wapen: Gedeeld: D. gedwarsbalkt; S. ? Helmteken: een zittende omziende adelaar. (MIMB/Sever. nr. inv. 5851)



Dan I



son of Radu I, first of the House of Dăneşti

Æ ~15 mm, ~0.6 g, silver


Obv.: Arms: Per pale, the first barry of eight pieces; the second the letter Ѡ, a globule in the center of the shield; inner and outer pearl circles


Rev.: Crest:  On a helmet an eagle sejant reguardant. Cyrillic legend: +IѠ DANOV VOEV


On another ducat of Dan I is::


Arms: Pp. of a barry of eight; and a ‘K’ .

Crest: Eagle sejant reguardant. (MIMB/Sever nr. inv. 9552)


Arms: Pp. of a barry of eight; and a ‘Ɵ’ .

Crest: Eagle sejant reguardant and the letter “P”


Mircea the Elder (Mircea I cel Bătrân)


1st rule 1386-1394

2nd rule 1397-1418

son of Radu I. First of the younger branch


The Empire of Mircea the Elder


While organizing the country and its institutions, Mircea also formed a system of lasting alliances which enabled him to defend the independence of the country.Through the intermediary of Petru Muşat, the prince of Moldavia, he concluded a treaty of alliance with Władysław II Jagiełło, king of Poland in 1389. The treaty was renewed in 1404 and 1410. He maintained close relations with Sigismund of Luxembourg, the king of Hungary, relying on their common interest in the struggle against Ottoman expansion

His interventions in support of the Bulgarians south of the Danube who were fighting against the Turks, brought him into conflict with the Ottoman Empire. In 1394, Beyazid I “the Thunderbolt”, crossed the Danube river, leading 40,000 men, an impressive force at the time. Mircea had only about 10,000 men so he could not survive an open fight. He chose what today is called a guerrilla warfare by starving the opposing army and using small, localized attacks and retreats. On 10 October 1394, the two armies finally clashed at the Battle of Rovine, which featured a forested and swampy terrain, thus preventing the Ottomans from properly spreading their army; Mircea finally won the fierce battle and threw the Ottomans out of the country.

In 1396, Mircea participated in an anti-Ottoman crusade started by Sigismund of Hungary. The crusade ended with the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Nicopolis on 25 September  In the next year, 1397, Mircea, having defeated Vlad the Usurper with Hungarian help, stopped another Ottoman expedition that crossed the Danube, and in 1400 he defeated yet another expedition of Turks crossing the country.

The defeat of Sultan Beyazid I by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) at Ankara in the summer of 1402 opened a period of anarchy in the Ottoman Empire and Mircea took advantage of it to organize, together with the King Sigismund a campaign against the Turks. In 1404 Mircea was thus able to impose his rule on Dobruja again. Moreover, Mircea took part in the struggles for the throne of the Ottoman Empire and enabled Musa to ascend that throne (for a brief reign). It was at this time that the prince reached the height of his power and could call himself  in 1404-‘06:

“I, Mircea, Great Voivode and Lord of all of Hungarian Walachia and of lands on the other side of the mountains and of Tartar territories, Duke of Amlas and Fagaras and Lord of the Banate of Severin and of both parts of all Podunava and also up to the great sea and prince of the cities of Dirstor.”

Towards the end of his reign (1417), Mircea signed a treaty with the Ottomans. In return for a tribute of 3,000 gold pieces per year, the Ottomans desisted from making Wallachia a pashalik  (province).



Inscription in greek from 1409. Discovered in Silistra: I, Mircea, grand voievode and lord of all Hun-garian Walachia has saved (Dobrogea from the Turcs).

Photo  Mihai Agafitei

Mircea the Elder and his son

Cotmeana monastery

Cotmeana Monastery was founded by Radu I (†1389) and rebuild by Mircea the Elder between 1387 and 1389.

On his purple tunica and the tunica of his son emblems of a blue disk charged with a white ball surrounded by another eight smaller balls, the whole within a red border.

This figure may be interpreted as a full moon surrounded by eight stars and in that case would be a symbol of the state and its princes, in all the symbol of the Walachian Government.

On their knees are golden patches with unreadable decorations, in a later version thought to have been golden two headed eagles (which would have been the badge of rank of a despot or basileus).

On a somewaht younger fresco Mircea and his son are represented in tunicas also strewn with the moon-and-stars emblems but the mantle of Mircea is now strewn with black two-headed eagles (the mantle of his son too damaged to be readable)

Mircea cel Bătrân and his son Mihail I at Cozia monastery.

Copy after the 14th century painting from the main church.

cca.16th century [8]

The church of Cozoa was founded by Mircea the Elder in 1380 and consecrated in 1388. The paintings were restored in 1517 by Neagoe Basarab (according to an inscription on a fountain bearing his name) and between 1706 and 1707 the church was modernized by Serban Cantacuzino who was the butler of  Constantin Brâncoveanu (1688-1714).

In Cozia monastery, founded by Mircea the Elder in 1380, he is represented twice: first with a mantle strewn with black two-headed eagles. [9] In that time a  black two-headed eagle was the badge of rank of the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

A second representation dates from the time after the modernization by Serban Cantacuzino and shows him, for unknown reasons, with golden two-headed eagles on his trousers.

The black two-headed eagles are a problem. A two-headed black eagle was an emblem of 13th century emperors of the Holy Roman Empire by name of Frederick II. For a long time after him no emperors were elected and Charles IV an his sons only bore the black eagle of the Roman- and German Kings. Sigismund of Luxemburg compelled the pope to crown him an emperor in 1417 and ordered a seal on which there was a coat of arms with a two headed eagle the same year. However this coronation only took place in 1433.The two headed eagle had been vacant all this time but nevertheless was still the badge of rank of the Holy Roman Empire. Of course we do not know what pretensions Mircea the Elder had in mind adopting the emblem, but perhaps he wanted to symbolize the titles he bore on the height of his power (1404-’06) or an aim to be elected Emperor. Also it is possible that the two-headed eagles symbolize the office of a regent of the Holy Roman Empire. A similiar heraldic policy was followed by William (†1389) and Albrecht (†1404) of Wittelsbach-Holland, the sons of Emperor Louis Bavarus (†1347) who let their arms Wittelsbach-Holland be supported by a black two-headed eagle.


Wallachia (Principality) ~AR Ducat 1386-1418 AD

Obv.: Arms: Per pale of a barry and the letter Ɯ


Rev.: Helmet and eagle-crest with cross



Silver coin of Mircea the Elder Æ ~14 mm, ~0.3 g, silver

Obv.: Arms: Per pale of a barry and the letter R

Legend: +IѠ MP[..] BOIBODA

Rev.: Helmet and eagle-crest and letter R

Legend: +IѠ MP[...] BOIBOD

The second specimen is a silver Ducat from Wallachia issued during the reign of Prince: Mircea I (The Elder) 1386-1418 AD. Mircea helped strengthen his country's status politically and economically in the region, and managed to control the most territory in it's history.

On an added note: Mircea I was the grandfather of Vlad Tepes III~The Impaler (AKA-Count Dracula).

Æ ,g 3.0~ ,mm 41~ revlis

Rev.:Mircea the Elder standing with crown and mantle, a globe crested with a cross in his left hand and a spear in his right

Legend: X IѠ MIP[...]B

Obv.: Arms per pale of a barry of eight and a void crested with an eagle sejant reguardant

Legend: X IѠ MI[..]B

Vlad de Usurpator (Vlad I Uzurpatorul)


son of Dan I

Mircea the Elder

2nd rule 1397-1418


Mihai I



(son of Mircea the Elder), co-ruled with his father since 1408.


In the porch, on the left, is a portrait of Mircea and his son Prince Michael, copied from the one in the great church before its restoration in 1705. Grand backrest Stroe is painted on his chest with his right hand and the left with a cross.


In pridvor, in stanga, se afla portretul lui Mircea cu fiul sau Mihail Voievod, copiat dupa cel din biserica mare inainte de restaurarea din 1705. Marele spatar Stroe este zugravit cu mana dreapta pe piept si in stanga avand o cruce.

Radu II the Bald (Radu II Praznaglava)

1st rule 1420-1422

2nd rule 1424-1426

son of Mircea cel Bătrân


On coins of Radu II is a helmet with the bird reguardant for crest between a comet and a decrescent. On the helmet a six-pointed star. [10]


His title read:

I Radu, great ruler and lord, by the Grace of God and the gift of God, ruling and reigning over all the Lands of Hungarian Vallachia and parts across the mountains, and also of Tătărăşti and Almas and the Duchy of Fagaras and ruler of the Banat of Severin and Podunava until the great sea ..

Dan II

1st rule 1422-1426

2nd rule 1427-1431

son of Dawn I, member of the Order of the Dragon;

The third specimen is a copper Bani from Wallachia 1429-1435 AD?. It is listed as being issued under Ban Nicolae Redwitz, but some Romanian numismatists believe this might have actually been issued under Prince: Dan II (1420-1431 AD). The obverse depicts a crowned shield with a cross of the Knights of St John and initial. The reverse, while weakly struck, depicts ther uler standing, holding a scepter, and legend along the rim. The 'Bani' is a division of the 'Leu', and is still used in Romanian currency today.

Wallachia ~AE Bani 1429-1435?

Arms: Eight-pointed square cross


Alexandru Aldea


son of Mircea cel Bătrân

Vlad II the Dragon (Vlad II Dracul)

1st term1436-1442

2nd term 1443-1447

illegitimate son of Mircea the Elder; member of the Order of the Dragon (thus Dracul)

Anti-ottoman, but had to submit to the Porte in 1437

son of Dan II; Placed on the throne by John Hunyadi, in war with Vlad II.

In 1444 and 1445 ally of John Hunyadi against the Turks.

Returned to the throne, and won against John Hunyadi, deposing also Basarab II. He was assassinated in 1447.

Seal of Majesty of Roman King Albrecht of Habsburg (1438-’39).


Albrecht with crown sceptre and orb.

Arms: (clockwise), Hungary, Dal,matia, Luxemburg, Barry of six, Austria ancient, Bohemia, Germany.



The arms barry of six may correspond with the title of Comanie (I.e. Vlad II)


Albrecht and Vlad II

Emperor Sigismund was Vlad’s patron. Albert of Habsburg (who was Sigismund of Luxembourg's son-in-law and successor) wrote a letter to Vlad, ordering him to protect Transylvania. Ignoring the king's command, Vlad joined Murad II who came to Wallachia at the head of his army in summer 1438, serving the sultan as his guide. The Ottoman and Wallachian troops broke into Hungary and besieged and plundered cities in Transylvania. After the Ottoman army had left Wallachia, Vlad offered Albert of Habsburg to set the burghers who had been captured at Sebeș free, but the king (who regarded them traitors) refused his offer. Vlad's attempts to maintain a balance between Hungary and the Ottomans made both the king and the sultan suspicious about his true intentions. Albert allowed a pretender to the Wallachian throne, Basarab (who was a son of Dan II) to settle in Hungary. The Ottomans strengthened the fortress of Giurgiuand sent new troops to garrison the town

Mircea II the Younger (Mircea al II-lea cel Tânăr)


2nd term 1446-1447

son of Vlad II Dracul,


Ruled with his father, first of the House of  Drăculeşti

sometimes not counted; he ruled while his father was on his way to Edirne to pay homage to Sultan Murad II in March 1442

He was blinded and buried alive by Hunyadi in 1447.

Coin of  Mircea II the Younger

(MIMB/Sever. nrs. inv. 6188 & 7415).

Obv:, Mircea standing, facing, holding spear and globus cruciger

Legend IѠ MIRCEA VOEVOD in Slavic

Rev: Arms Pp. of a five-pointed star and a barry of eight

Crest: Eagle

Legend IѠ MIRCEA VOEVOD in Slavic,


Also attributed to Mircea the Elder


Basarab II


Son of Dan II

Vladislav II

1st term1447-1448

2nd term 1448-1457

Son of Dan II;


supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; The way he came to the throne is debatable, but the most accepted is that he killed Vlad II, and was then replaced in the throne by Hunyadi.

Returned from the battle, rules again until his death in a hand-to-hand combat against Vlad III, who retakes the throne;

Silver ducat of Vladislav II

(MIMB/Sever. nr. inv. 5220)

Vladislav II, 1447-1456 AD. Silver Ducat. Coat-of-arms (crescent and star) on shield, IWBLADI- [CLABOHBO] D. 16 mm, 0.49 g. ref: MBR, p. 31, tip 256-261a., IW-BLADICLAB-OHBODGNb /

Vlad II was a blood relative of “Dracula”, he killed Vlad Dracul, and was in turn killed by Vlad Dracula “The Impaler”



Vlad III the Impaler (Vlad al III-lea Țepeș)

1st rule 1448

2nd rule 1456-1462

3rd rule 1476

son of Vlad II Dracul;

Invaded Wallachia while Vladislav was absent, in battle against the Ottomans;

Deposed in the next year by Hunyadi; 1st rule

Returned  but was killed shortly after


Radu III the Fair (Radu cel Frumos)

1st rule 1462–1473

2nd rule 1473–1474

3rd rule 1474

4th rule 1474–1475

son of Vlad II Dracul but pro-ottoman

In civil war against Basarab III

Basarab III the Elder (Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân)

1st rule 1473

2nd rule 1474

3rd rule 1474

4th rule 1475–1476

 last rule1476–1477 

son of Dan II; In civil war against Radu III;

Basarab IV The Younger, The Little Impaler

(Basarab IV Țepeluș cel Tânăr)

1st rule 1477–1481

2nd rule 1481-1482

Vlad Calugarul

1st rule 1481

2nd rule 1482-1495

son of Vlad II Dracul


Ms Leon Battista Alberti

Modena, Biblioteca Estense Cod. Lat. 419, fol 1 r. Right margin


These arms are represented together with the arms of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary and Bohemia for use in Austria of which he was a duke in 1485. The other coats of arms in the margin are those of Hunyadi (surrounded by the Order of the Dragon), Bistritsa, of two crowns on a blue field and of Silesia. 

Mircea III


illegitimate son of Vlad II Dracul

Radu IV the Great (Radu cel Mare)


son of Vlad Călugărul

Mihnea I the Bad (Mihnea cel Rău)


Son of Vlad Țepeș)

Mircea III Dracul


son of Mihnea cel Rău

Vlad the Younger (Vlad cel Tânăr)


son of Vlad Călugărul; also known as Vlăduț

Neagoe Basarab



possibly son of Pârvu Craiovescu or Basarab IV; The most accepted theory is that he claimed the throne as a son of Basarab IV, being in fact son of Pârvu. Cultural zenith in Wallachia.


Neagoe Basarab and his family.

Fresco from the church of  Curte de Arges monastery

 (Museum of Romanian Art, Bucarest)


Also Neagoe Basarab, who was married with the daughter of despot George Brankovic (†1502) Despina, has crowned two-headed eagles on his dress on frescoes in Snagov and Curtea de Argeş. [12]


Neagoe Basarab and his son Teodosie

Fresco in Snagov monastery


A crowned two-headed golden eagle on his dress

Gravestone of Neagoe Basarab 1521

Curtea de Argeş Monastery


Sun emblem and patriarchal cross on socle being the emblems of the realm and of the combined emblems of administrative and religious authority.


Milica of Serbia Regent on behalf of her son






Princess Ruxandra, spouse of Radu de la Afumaţ

Ruxandra, dau. of Néagoé Basaraba and Milica Brankovic ¥ Radu de la Afumati, Voivode of Walachia († 2.1.1529)

Radu V (Radu de la Afumaţi)

 1522-1523; 1524; 1524-1525; 1525-1529

illegitimate son of Radu cel Mare; allied with Craiovești;


Constantine and Helena”.

By Athanasie the Icon painter. (Metropolitan Chuch of  Târgovişte).

Probably a copy of a portrait of  Radu de la Afumaţi and Ruxandra.

Gravestone of Radu V (1529)

Curtea de Argeş Monastery


Vladislav III

1st rule 1523

2nd rule 1524

3rd rule 1525

nephew of Vladislav II

Radu Badica



Basarab VI


Non-dynastic; Son of Mehmed-bey



son of Vladislav III. Last of the Dănești.

Vlad VI the Drowned (Vlad VI Înecatul)


son of Vlad cel Tânăr

Vlad VII (Vintilă de la Slatina)


son of Radu cel Mare

Radu Paisie (Petru de la Argeş)


son of Vlad VII Vintilă de la Slatina

Mircea the Shepard (Mircea Ciobanul)

1st rule 1545-1552

2nd rule 1553-1554

3rd rule 1558-1559

son of Radu cel Mare

Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd (Radu Ilie Haidăul)

1st rule1552-1553

2nd rule 1553-1554

son of Radu de la Afumați


Patrascu the Good


Son of Radu Paisie.

Peter I the Younger (Petru cel Tânăr)


son of Mircea Ciobanul

Chiajna of Moldavia (Regent)  Regent on behalf of her son 1559-1564

Alexandru II Mircea


son of Mircea III Dracul; popularly called Oaie Seacă (Barren Sheep); 1st rule

Ioan Voda cel Viteaz

Alexandru II Mircea




son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun

Mihnea II the Turk (Mihnea Turcitul)

1st rule1577-1583

2nd rule 1585-1591

Catherine Salvaresso Regent on behalf of her son, Mihnea II. Deposed by Peter II.


Paid for the assassination of his usurper. Returned and ruled alone.

Petru II of the Earring (Petru Cercel)


son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun

Prince with Orthodox cross

Mihai Viteazul


Voievode of Walachia 1593-1601


On 18 October 1598 Michael won a decisive victory against the army of prince-cardinal Andrew Báthory at the Battle of Şelimbăr, giving him control of Transylvania.

With Andrew Báthory dead, Michael entered the Transylvanian capital at Alba Iulia Gyulafehervar and received the keys to the fortress from Bishop Demeter Napragy. Stephen Szamosközy, keeper of the Archives at the time, wrote that on 8 October, Transylvanian nobles elected Michael the voivode as Prince of Transylvania. As a Diet was assembled on 10 October, Michael demanded that the estates swear loyalty to Emperor Rudolf, then to himself and thirdly to his son. Even if he was recognized by the Transylvanian Diet as only imperial governor subject to the Holy Roman Emperor, he was nonetheless ruler of Transylvania.

According to his formal position in Transylvania Michael used the following signature on official documents:

“Michael Valachiae Transalpinae Woivoda, Sacrae Caesareae Regiae Majestatis Consiliarius per Transylvaniam Locumtenens, cis transylvaniam partium eius super exercitu Generalis Capitaneus". ("Michael, voivode of Wallachia, the councillor of His Majesty the Emperor and the King, his deputy in Transylvania and General Captain of his troops from Transylvania.")

Michael began negotiating with the Emperor over his official position in Transylvania. The latter wanted the principality under direct Imperial rule with Michael acting as governor. Michael, on the other hand, wanted the title of Prince of Transylvania for himself and equally claimed the Partium region. Michael was, nevertheless, willing to acknowledge Habsburg overlordship.


Seal of Michael the Brave


Emblem: The arms of Moldova supported by two princes. In chief the Wallachian eagle between a sun and a crescent. In base two lions supporting a sword upright standing on seven hills symbolizing the Saxon nation.

Legend: X NML BJE MLRDIE / X IO MIHAILI UGROVLAHISCOI VOEVOD ARDILSCOI MOLD ZEMLI. (By the grace of God, I, Michael Voivod of Wallachia, lord of Transilvania and Moldavia).


The lions supporting the sword is the heraldic emblem of the Kantakouzenos family of the mother of Michael, Theodora Kantakouzene. She was a member of the Kantakouzenoi, a noble family present in Wallachia and Moldavia, and allegedly descended from the Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos (1292-1383).


Arms of Kantakouzenos by Conrad Grüneberg, fol. 144.


This branch of the Kantakouzenoi bore, according to Conrad Grüneberg: Azure, two lions Or, supporting a sword upright, proper.

The legend above the arms, identifying the bearer, reads:

“Contta von Cussinus der ist der xii Sebherrenn ainer des kaiserthumb zu Constantinopel.”

(Or: Kantakouzenos is one of the 12 sebastokrators of the Empire of Constantinople)


Szigmond Báthory


Voivode of Transilvania 11.05.1581-1586

1st term Prince of Transilvania 1586-1597

Prince of Wallachia 03.06.1595

Knight of the Fleece n° 284  1596

Prince of Transilvania 1598 – 1599; 1601 - 26.07.1602



The arms of Sigismund Bathory as a Knight of the Fleece [13]


The arms of Sigismund Báthory is described by Johan Chiflet in 1632. The blazoning reads:



Hault & Puissant Prince, Sigismond Bathory Prince de Transylvanie

Portoit de l’Empire; l’aigle chargé sur l’aile droicte d’un R, sur la senestre d’un A; sur la queüe, d’un autre A, tous trois d’or: Sur la poictrine d’un escusson éscartelé:

Transilvanie: Au I. D’or, a un aigle naissant, de sable; la teste costoyée, a droitte, d’un croissant

            tourné d’or, a gauche d’un estoille a six poinctes, de mesmes; soustenu de gueulles, a

            sept montagnes d’argent, sommées d’autant de chasteaux de mesmes.

......       Au II d’argent, a unde teste de bufle affrontée, de sable; au canton dextre du chef,

            un croissant d’or; au senestre, une etoille de mesmes.

Corvin  Au III, d’or, a un corbeau contourné, de sable, la teste retournée a dextre; tenent au bec

            une double croix de gueulles, au pied long, mis en bande.

......       Au IV d’argent, a un arbre de sinople, au fruicts d’or, tenu de deux Turcs, vestus de

            gueulles, au turbans d’or; au canton dextre du chef, un croissant; au senestre, une estoille             comme dessus.

Bathory Sur le tout, de gueulles, a un machoire de loup contournée, d’argent.

Heaume couronné d’or a raions, a un hault fleuron sur le devant.

Timbre: un vol adossé, de sable, l’aile droicte chargée d’une R, senestre d’un A d’Or; entre les deux, un autre A, de mesmes, sur le fleuron de la Couronne. Hachements d’or et de sable. [14]

Radu Mihnea

1601-1602; 1611-1616; 1620- 1623

Matei Basarab

Lord of the Romanian Lands 1632-1654

Antonie Vodă din Popești 

Lord of the Romanian Lands 1669 - 1672.



Șerban Cantacuzino 

Lord of the Romanian Lands 1678-1688


In the 17th century the emblem of the Cantacuzino-family was a crowned two-headed eagle, the badge the Holy Roman Empire, and symbolizing the title of Defender of the Holy Roman Empire awarded to Şerban Cantacuzino.


Two-headed eagle between a sun and a crescent

Ovidenia church of Odobesti, founded by Iordache of the Cantacuzino family, 1670.


Constantin Brâncoveanu 

Lord of the Romanian Lands 1688-1714


Two-headed eagle of Constantin Brâncoveanu 

Cozia Monastery


The nimbused two-headed eagle ducally crowned and an ordhodox crozier (paterissa) and triple cross in saltire. In its talons a latin cross and an orb.


Stefan Cantacuzino



Two-headed eagle of Stefan Cantacuzino, supported by two lions,  1715

Muzeul Naţional de Artă al României


After the execution of Stefan Cantacuzino in 1716 the Phanariote rule in Wallachia was established as a way to ensure a tighter Ottoman control over Wallachia


Phanariot Rulers


In the time of Phanariot Rule, Walachian heraldry was restricted to the arms and achieveents of the principalities. No coats of arms of the Phanariot families or its rulers themselves are known until the beginning of the 19th century. From the 19th century some coats of arms of the descendants of the Phanariot rulers are known but it is not known when exactly they were created and why.


Nicolae Mavrocordat


Johan Mavrocordat


Nicolae Mavrocordat


Constantin Mavrocordat


Mihai Racovita


Constantin Mavrocordat


Grigore II Ghica


Constantin Mavrocordat


Mihai Racovita


Constantin Mavrocordat


Grigore II Ghica


Matei Ghica


Constantin Racovita


Constantin Mavrocordat


Scarlat Ghica


Constantin Mavrocordat


Constantin Racovita


Stefan Voda Racovita


Scarlat Ghica


Alexander Ghica


Grigore II Ghica


Manuci Rosetti


Alexander Mavrocordato




Arms of Dimitrios Mavrocordatos (1821-1873)


Constantin Handjery 



Alexander Moruzi



Arms of Konstantinos K. Mourouzis (1821-1876)

Michael Sutsu



Constantin Ipsilanti



Johan II Caradja



Coat of arms of the Romanian princes Caragea (Karadja, Karatzas, Καρατζάς), having Greek origins, after a seal of the 19th c.. Ioan Gheorghe Caragea. was prince of Wallachia (1812-1818). The quarters of the sinister side are depicting, in fact, the achievement of the princes Mavrocordato (the star, sometimes a sun, and the phenix – (which became the symbol of the Greek national revival). The quarters of the dexter side are containing the Wallachian eagle (1st quarter), and the unicorn of the Carageas (3rd quarter).

Alexander Nicholas Suțu



Last voivode of Walachia


After 1821 no voivodes of Walachia were appointed by the Porte

Alexandru Dimitrie Ghica 


Lord of The Romanian Countries 1834-1842

Caimacam 1856-1858


Seal of Alexander Ghica

Arms: Per fess, the base per pale: The chief Or, the Aquila Valahica Sable, the base 1. Tierced per fess Gules, Or and Azure; 2. Vert, six tears Argent (Ghica, wallachian branch)

Crest: Helmet crowned.

Supporters: Lions reguardant, the dexter with a mac eand the sinkster with a sword, standing on cannon

Mantle: Purpure, fringed and tasseled Or, lined ermine and princley crowned.



Gheorghe Bibescu 


Lord of The Romanian Countries 1843-1848


Seal of George Bibescu


Arms: Per fess, the base per pale: The chief Or, the Aquila Valahica Sable, the base 1. Azure, a chevron and a five-pointed star in base Or (Bibescu); 2Tierced per fess Gules, Or and Azure; Crest: Helmet crowned.

Supporters: Lions reguardant, the dexter with a mac eand the sinkster with a sword, standing on cannon

Mantle: Purpure, fringed and tasseled Or, lined ermine and ducally crowned.



The achievement of Bibescu




Diplom issued on 2 June 1247 by King Bela IV


Magistro et fratribus Hospitalis Jerosolimitani.

Magnum caritatis et providentie opus per vos intelleximus, carissimum in Christo filium nostrum Belam Ungarie illustrem regem: divine pietatis intuitu et consideratione etiam utilitatis publice regni sui Hospitali estro fecisse, conferendo Videlicet dilecto filio fratri Rembaldo, preceptori domorum Hospitalis Jerosolimitani in partibus cismarinis nomine Hospitalis eiusdem, in regno suo terram non modicam, iurisdictiones et alia que in confecto privilegio aurei sigilli sui munimine roborato plenius exprimuntur, adiectis conditionibus pro ipsius regni defensione ac statu prospero sibique quibusdam iuribus reservatis. Nos igitur et regni predicti conservationem zelantes et Hospitalis ipsius cupientes commodum et augmentum, concessionem predictorum sicut provide a rege predicto facta est, ratam habentes et gratam, illam auctoritate apostolica confirmamus et presentis scripti patro cinio communius tenorem ipsius privilegii de verbo ad verbum presenti bus inseri facinetes, qui talis est.

In nomine sancte trinitatis et individue unitatis, Amen. Bela dei gratia Hungarie, Dalmatie, Chroatie, Rame, Servie, Gallitie, Lodomerie, Cumanieque rex, in perpetuum. Regum celsitudo requirit et sublimium dignitati debetur, ut inter cetera eo studiosius ad multiplicationem invigilet subditorum, quo ipsorum gloria in subiecte plebis multitudine specialius exaltatur, presertim cum regum omnium et regnorum potentia, pax et securitas in suorum robore consistere dinoscantur. Accedit nichilominus non ad modicam sollicitudinis regie partem eos benignioribus intueri et amplioribus prosequi beneficiis, in quorum personis et utilitas temporalis provenire speratur et rex regum omnium propensius honoratur. Hac itaque consideratione inducti cum venerabili viro fratre Rembaldo domorum Hospitalis Jerosolimitani magno preceptore in partibus cismarinis dilecto amico nostro super populatione regni nostri, quod per hostilem barbare nationis incursum, que Tartari appellantur, sicut in bonorum amissione, sic incolarum interemptione grave sustinuit dispendium, longo prehabito tractatu cum principibus et baronibus regni nostri, in hoc nostra resedit communiter deliberatio, ut, quia idem preceptor nomine domus Hospitalis insubsidium regni nostri intuitu defensionis fidei Christiane arma assumere secundum formam inferius annotatam et in populanda terra nostra consilium et auxilium impendere bona fide necnon alias subire conditiones paulo post presentibus insertas se ac domum Hospitalis sponte obligavit, damus et conferimus sibi et per eum dicte domui totam terram de Zeurino cum alpibus ad ipsam pertinentibus et aliis attinentiis omnibus, pariter cum kenazatibus Joannis et Farcasii usque ad fluvium Olth, excepta terra kenazatus Lytuoy woiauode, quam Olatis relinquimus, prout iidem hactenus tenuerunt, ita tamen, quod medietatem omnium utilitatum et reddituum ac servitiorum de tota terra Zeurini memorata et kenazatibus supranominatis provenientium nobis et successoribus nostris reservamus, medietate alia ad usum domus supradicte cedente, exceptis ecclesiis constructis et construendis in omnibus terris supradictis, de quarum redditibus nichil nobis reservamus, salvis tamen reverentiis et iuribus archiepiscoporum et episcoporum, que habere dinoscuntur, exceptis etiam molendinis omnibus infra terminos prenominatarum terrarum ubicumque factis vel faciendis, preterquam in terra Lytua necnon edificiis et agriculturis omnibus sumptibus fratrum dicte domus factis, fenetis quoque seu animalium et pecorum suorum pascuis, piscinis etiam, que nunc sunt vel fient per ipsos, que omnia ad ipsorum fratrum usum integraliter volumus retineri, preter piscationes Danubii ac piscine de Cheley, quas nobis et ipsis communes reservamus. Concedimus etiam, quod medietatem omnium proventuum et utilitatum, que ab Olatis terram Lytua habitantibus excepta terra Harszoc cum pertinentibus suis regi colligentur, domus Hospitalis percipiat antedicta. Volumus etiam, quod memorato. Olati ad defensionem terre et ad iniurias propulsandas seu ulciscendas, que ab extraneis nostre dictioni non subiectis inferentur, iamdictis fratribus cum apparatu suo bellico assistere, et e converso ipsi fratres in casibus consimilibus eis subsidium et iuvamen iuxta posse impendere teneantur. Ad hec de salibus, quos ad usum dicte terre et illarum partium versus Bulgariam, Greciam et Cumaniam sufficienter deferri concedimus, de quacumque salisfodina Ultrasiluana commodius sumptibus nobis et ipsis communibus extrahi poterunt, salvo in omnibus iure episcopali, necnon de moneta, que illic, de voluntate regia et consilio preceptoris domus illius pro tempore constituti, curret, medietatem nobis reservamus, sicut de ceteris redditibus est pretactum, medietate alia ad usum dicte domus convertenda, salvis iuribus ecclesiarum. Ordinationes quoque quas nobilibus ac aliis tam super libertatibus ipsorum, quam super iudiciis ad inhabitandum terram iamdictam aliunde venientibus concesserit, salva parte nostra reddituum et utilitatum exinde provenientium dicta domus necnon sententias, quas tulerit in eosdem, ratas habebimus atque firmas, hoc addito, quod si contra maiores terre aliqua sententia de sanguinis effusione prolata fuerit, in qua senserint se gravari, ad nostram curiam valeant appellare, hoc insuper adiecto, quod si exercitus regnum nostrum, quod absit, invadere attemptaret, quinta pars armatorum terre iamdicte pro defensione terre nostre in exercitu nostro ad bella procedere teneatur. Si autem versus Bulgariam, Greciam et Cumaniam exercitum moverimus, tertia pars omnium ad bella habilium procedet et de acquisitionibus tam mobilium quam immobilium portionem recipiet domus iamdicta pro numero personarum exercitus de Zeurino pariter et armorum. Ad hec contulimus preceptori antedicto et per ipsum domui Hospitalis a fluvio Olth et alpibus Ultrasiluanis totam Cumaniam, sub eisdem conditionibus, que de terra de Zeurino superius sunt expresser excepta terra Szeneslai woiavode Olatorum, quam eisdem relinquimus, prout iidem hactenus tenuerunt sub eisdem etiam conditionibus per omnia, que de terra Lytua sunt superius ordinate. Hoc autem nolumus preterire, quod a primo introitu sepedictorum fratrum usque ad viginti quinque annos omnes redditus Cumanie terre integraliter domus percipiat iamprefata, preterquam de terra Szeneslay antedicta, de qua tantum medietatem reddituum et utilitatum obtinebit. Ex tunc vero medietas omnium proventuum, utilitatum et servitiorum per fratres eiusdem a celsitudine regia approbatos et iuratos fisco regio ministratur, ita tamen, quod de quinquennio in quinquennium per nostrum hominem specialem proprii redditus, servitia ac utilitates exinde provenientes debeant computari. Sumptus vero, qui in castrorum seu munitionum custodiis <fient> sicut nobis et ipsis fratribus debent esse communes, salvis aliis conditionibus pro parte nostra et exceptionibus pro parte domus Hospitalis in terra Cumanie, utputa de ecclesiis, molendinis et aliis omnibus, que singillatim superius de Zeurino sunt expressa. Ad castra etiam edificanda in dicta terra Cumanie necnon contra quoslibet impugnatores terre Cumanie consilium et vires ipsis fratribus impendemus, cum necesse fuerit et ab ipsis fratribus fuerimus requisiti, edam cessantibus impedimentis aliis illuc personaliter accedendo. Conferimus etiam eisdem terram quadringentorum aratrorum in Feketig, vel alibi ultra silvas complebimus hunc numerum, ubi magis ad introitum terre Cumanie vel Zeurini dictis fratribus videbimus expedire, super qua donatione litteras nostras dabimus speciales. Denique ut sepedicta domus Hospitalis commodius sibi necessaria per mare valeat procurare, pro utilitatibus regni nostri et suis contulimus sibi et suis contulimus sibi iuxta maritima civitatem Scardonam cum omnibus suis pertinentiis et iuribus ipsam contingentibus necnon predium Pecath cum suis terminis et utilitatibus, prout carissimus frater noster indite memorie Colomanus rex tenuit et quemadmodum ad ipsum predium pertinere dinoscuntur, salvis ecclesiarum iuribus in eisdem. Insuper etiam terram nomine Woyla iuxta Danubium non longe a Zenilen existentem, a castro de Crassou exemptam, cum omnibus pertinentiis et utilitatibus suis, sicut Nicolaus frater Ugolini in perpetuitatibus tenuerat, fratribus contulimus antedictis. Porro sepedictus preceptor ob concessiones nostras, quas propter causas infrascriptas facimus seu fecimus, obligavit se nomine dicte domus arma assumere contra omnes paganos cuiuscumque nationis necnon contra Bulgaros, contra alios autem scismaticos, si regnum vel regni confinia invadere attemptarent, nominatim ac precise introducere in regnum nostrum in presenti ad nostrum et regni servitium centum fratres militaribus armis et equis decenter et bene preparatos. Contra exercitum autem Christianorum regnum nostrum intrare volentem obligavit se nomine dicte domus, dare quinquaginta fratres armatos ad custodiam et defensionem castrorum et munitionum in confiniis existentium, ut est Posonium, Musunium, Suprunium, Castrum Ferreum, Castrum Novum et etiam infra, ubicumque rex voluerit collocare, et sexaginta contra Tartaros, si regnum nostrum ipsos intrare contingat, quod absit. Quibus omnibus, quamdiu sunt in custodiis castrorum et munitionum, regia provisio faciet sumtus necessarios ministrari. Adiunctum etiam est nomine domus, quod preceptor seu magister, qui pro tempore ad gubernationem domorum turn in regnis nostris existentium mittetur de partibus transmarinis vel aliis in introitu suo promittere teneatur, data fide iuxta consuetudinem sui ordinis, omnem fidelitatem regi ac regno et observare facere atque attendere in se et suis sine fraude universa et singula supradicta, et quod curam et operam dabit ad populandum non solum dictas terras, sed etiam alias terras nostri regni, et quod rusticos de regno nostro cuiuscumque conditionis et nationis, ac Saxones vel Teutonicos de nostro regno non recipiant ad habitandum terras supradictas nisi de licentia regia speciali. Adiunctum insuper fuit a nobis et a preceptore iamdicto nomine prefate domus receptum, quod si premissa vel aliqua seu aliquid de premissie, ad que dictas preceptor se et predictam domum superius obligavit, per ipsum vel per alium preceptorem seu magistrum pro tempore constitutum omitti contigeret, et tertio sollempniter admonitus satisfacere non curaret, magnusque magister transmarinus super hoc modo debito pro parte regia sufficienter requisitus, non emendaret infra annum post factam requisitionem, quod omissum est seu neglectum per dictum magistrum seu preceptorem pro tempore existentem, emendam et ultionem per subtractionem reddituum vel alio modo iuxta quantitatem et qualitatem excessus regia deliberatio recipiet, iuxta sue beneplacitum voluntatis. Ut igitur universa et singula supradicta, coram nobis et baronibus nostris recitata, peipetue firmitatis, quantum est ex persona nostra, robur obtineant que fide data porrectione dextre regalis nostre promisimus, durantibus obligationibus, ex parte domus factis, inviolabiliter observare et facere observari, presentem tradidimus paginam caractere bulle nostre auree communitam, et sepedictum preceptorem nomine domus Hospitalis prefate per dilectum et fidelem nostrum magistrum Achillem Albensem prepositum, aule nostre vicecancellarium, in possessionem predictorum corporalem auctoritate regia fecimus introduci. Datum per manus reverendi patris Benedicti archiepiscopi Colocensis et aule nostre cancellarii. Venerabili patre Stephano archiepiscopo Strigoniensi, Bartholomaeo Quinqueecclesiensi, Stephan Zagabriensi, Basilio Cenadiensi, Pousa Boznensi, Artolpho Jauriensi, Zalando Vesprimiensi, Wicentio Waradiensi, Heymone Waciensi, Gallo Transiluano, Lamperto Agriensi episcopis, ecclesias dei feliciter gubernantibus. Rectislao ilustri duce Gallitie dei feliciter gubernantibus. Rectislao ilustri duce Gallitie et bano totius Sclavonie, Stephano comite palatino, Laurentio woiauoda Transilvano, Dionisio magistro tawarnicorum et comite Posoniensi, Rolando iudice aule nostre, Mauricio magistro dapiferorum et comite Nytriensi, Chak magistro agasonum et comite Supruniensi, Bagin magistro pincernarum et comite de Bana, Paulo de Zounuk, Benedicto Musuniensi, Nicolae Zaladiensi, alio Nicolao de Ferreo Castro, Henrico Symigiensi, Sewerito Albensi comitibus ac aliis quampluribus comitatus et magistratus regni nostri tenentibus. Anno ab incarnation domini MCCXLVII, IIII. Nonas Junii, regni autem nostri anno duodecimo. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre confirmationi  infringere vel ei ausu temerario contraire . Datum Lugduni XIII. kalendas Augusti anno VIII


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 © Hubert de Vries 2018-02-20




[1] For a facsimele, a transcription of the latin text and a translation in Romanian:

[2] Adam-Even, Paul & Léon Jéquier: Un Armorial français du XIIIe siècle, l'armorial Wijnbergen. In: Archives Heraldiques Suisses. 1951 pp. 49-62, pp. 101-110, 1952 pp. 28-36, 64-68, 103-111, 1953 pp. 55-77.

[3] 1365 ca W.: burelé [Or and Vert]... au fr quartier de Constan­ti­nople (= n° 1484).  [= Alexandre Stratimirovic = Jean Asen II (1331-1365)]. (Gelre n° 1485).

[4] Gelre nr. 1487

[5] Alonso de Torres (1478) in: Martin de Riquer: Heraldica Castellana). Nr. 407 El enperador de Trapesondas. Traya por armas de plata con cuatro fasas negras y con un cuartel de Constantynobla. In the next number (408) the coat of arms of Constantinople  is blasoned: Gules, a cross and in each quarter the emblem between four crosslets recrossed Or.  These arms may be exchanged with nr. 427: El rrey de Por de Rromania. Trae de gulas con el agila de oro de dos cabeças. That is Gules, a two-headed eagle  Or which are the arms of Trabzon, and which makes nr 407 the arms of  Por de Romania.

[6]  According to: This takes the arms of Peter the Great of Moldavia as an example. This is representred on his Gospels from 1502. The second quarter was long time thought to have been barry Vert and Or but a modern representation of the gospels shows it barry Gules and Or. Apart from that Peter the Great was a member of the House of Musat and not of Basarab.

[7] By courtesy of Drăgan-George Basarabă

[8] See: Iorga, Nicolae: Domni români după portrete şi fresce contemporane, Sibiu, 1930

[9] Solovjev A.V.: Les emblemes heraldiques de Byzance et les Slaves. In: Sbornik Statej po Archeologii i Vizantinovedeniju. (Recueil d' etudes seminarium Kondakovianum Archeologie et histoire d'art. Etudes Byzantines). Praha, 1935, pp. 119-164.  p. 154; Panaitescu, P.: L'Aigle byzantine sur les vêtements des princes roumains du Moyen Age. Academie Roumaine Bulletin de la Section Historique XVII (1930) pp. 64-67).

[10] Sturdza-Saucesti, Marcel: Armorial roumain. In: Archivum Heraldicum. 1973 pp. 26-37.

[11]  Der.Deutsche Herold., 1871, p. 122

[12] (Solovjev, 154. Panaitescu)

[13] Maurice, Jean Baptiste, Héraut et Roy d'Armes de sa Majesté Catholique:Le Blason des Armoiries de tous les Chevaliers de l'ordre de la Toison d'or depuis la premiere institution jusques a present. A la Haye: Rammazeyn; 1667 

[14] Chiflet, Johan Jacob: Insignia Gentilitia Equitum ordinis velleris aurie. Antwerpen, MDCXXXII, p. 155; Maurice, Jean Baptiste: Le Blason des Armoiries de tous les Chevaliers de l’Ordre de la Toison d’Or. Den Haag, 1667,  p. 299.