ROMANIA

Part 2

 

 

HISTORY

The Principalities in Personal Union

The United Principalities

Romania

The Kingdom

The republic

Armed Forces

Moldavia  

Transilvania

Walachia

 

Back to Part 1

History

 

In 1881, the Romanian principality was raised to a kingdom and on 26 March Prince Carol became King Carol I of Romania.

In August 1914, when World War I broke out, Romania declared neutrality. Two years later, under the pressure of the Allies (especially France desperate to open a new front), on 14/27 August 1916 it joined the Allies, for which Romania was promised support for the accomplishment of national unity, including recognition of Romanian rights over Transylvania (which was at that time part of Austria-Hungary); Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary.

In October 1918, Romania joined the war again. Governing bodies created in Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina chose union with the Kingdom of Romania, resulting in Greater Romania.

By the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, Hungary renounced in favour of Romania all the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania.The union of Romania with Bukovina was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain, and with Bessarabia in 1920 by the Treaty of Paris.

During the Second World War, Romania tried again to remain neutral, but on 28 June 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance. Under pressure from Moscow and Berlin, the Romanian administration and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well from Northern Bukovina to avoid war. This, in combination with other factors, prompted the government to join the Axis. Thereafter, southern Dobruja was awarded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as result of an Axis arbitration.

Because Carol II lost so much territory through failed diplomacy, the army supported seizure of power by General Ion Antonescu. For four months (the period of the National Legionary State), he had to share power with the Iron Guard, but the latter overplayed their hand in January 1941 and were suppressed. Romania entered World War II under the command of the German Wehrmacht in June 1941, declaring war to the Soviet Union in order to recover Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. Romania was awarded the territory between Dniester and the Southern Bug by Germany to administer it under the name of Transnistria,

On 20 August 1944 the Soviet Red Army crossed the border into Romania. On 23 August 1944 Antonescu was toppled and arrested by King Michael I of Romania, who joined the Allies and declared war on Germany. On 31 August 1944 the Soviet Red Army entered Bucharest. Despite Romania`s change of sides its role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947

Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist People's Republic in 1947, and the abdication of King Michael, who went into exile. The leader of Romania from 1948 to his death in 1965 was Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, the First Secretaryof the Romanian Workers' Party, who first sowed the seeds of greater independence from the Soviet Union by persuading the Sovbiet Union to withdraw troops from Romania in April 1958.

After the Romanian Revolution of 1989 had brought about the fall of Ceauşescu and the end of the Communist regime in Romania, a new constitution was drafted and subsequently adopted, In December 1991.

 

Regatul Romaniei

22.05.1881-30.12.1947

 

Carol I Hohenzollern       

1881-1914

 

Official drawing, about 1890

 

Arms: Ľ 1. Azure, the Aquila Walahica with sword and sceptre, Or, in dexter chief a sun radiant Or; 2. Gules, a bull's head, between its horns a six-pointed star and in sinister chief a crescent all Or; 3. Gules, a lion rampant issuant from a crown, in dexter chief a six-pointed star Or; 4. Azure, two dolphins respecting heads in base Or. And in fess point an escutceon quarterly Argent and Sable.

Crown: A Royal crown

Order: Of the Romanian Star  (Ordinului Steaua Romaniei, 1877’

Supporters: Two lions ppr.

Motto: Nihil sine deo in golden lettering on a ribbon Azure.

Mantle: Purpure etc. crowned with a royal crown.

 

Cross of the Order of the Romanian Star

 

Ferdinand I

1914-1927

           

After  the union of Basarabia and Transilvania by referendum of 1918 and the Treaty of Trianon of 1921, an adaptation of the arms of the old kingdom was felt to be necessary. The arms of Transilvania were placed in the fourth quarter. Basarabia, as a former part of Moldavia had, as a Russian Government a black bull’s head on a blue field. The second quarter of the new achievement can be considered as a combination of the arms of Moldavia and of Basarabia.

 

The new achievement of the kingdom was adopted by law on 23th of July 1921 and published in the Monitorul Oficial nr. 92, 29.VII.1921.

The achievement is in three categories: the smaller, consisting of the shield and the crown only, the lesser, consisting of the shield, crown, supporters, order and motto, and the larger of which the emblazonment is:.

 

Arms: Azure, a cowned eagle, in his beak a latin cross, in his dexter claw a sword and in his sinister claw a sceptre, Or; on his breast a shield quarterly, enté en point and in fess piont an escutcheon: 1. Azure, a crowned eagle Or, beaked an clawed Gules, in his beak a latin cross, in his dexter claw a sword and in his sinister claw a sceptre and in dexter chief a sun radiant all Or; 2. Gules, a bull’s head proper, betweenn its horns a six-pointed star, and between a sun radiant and a crescent in chief all Or; 3 Gules, a lion rampant Or on an aqueduct proper; 4. Parted per fess Gules Azure and Or, in chief an eagle issuant Sable, langued Gules, between a sun radiant and a crescent in chief Or, and in base seven castles 4 and 3 Gules; in base Azure, two dolphins respecting, heads in base Or; in fess point quarterly Argent and Sable.

Crown: The Plevna Crown

Order: The collar and star of the Ordinul Carol I.

Supporters: Two lions Or, langued Gules.

Motto: NIHIL SINE DEO (Nothing Without God) in golden lettering on a ribbon Azure.

Mantle: Gules, lined ermine, fringed and tasseled Or and royally crowned.

 

The use of the larger achievement is restricted to the King on Royal decrees and on international treatments, the lesser achievement is for use by the army and other state-authorities, the smaller achievement is used on seals and official stamps

 

The law reads:

 

FERDINAND I,

Prin grația lui Dumnezeu și voința națională, Rege al României,

La toți de față și viitori, sănătate:

Corpurile legiuitoare au votat și adoptat, iar Noi sancționăm ce urmează:

L E G E

PENTRU

FIXAREA STEMEI REGATULUI ROMÂNIEI, ÎNTREGIT CU ȚĂRILE SURORI UNITE

 

Art. I.— Stema Regatului României, întregit cu țările surori unite, se compune din trei scuturi puse unul peste altul: scutul mare, scutul mediu și scutul mic (peste totul).

I. Scutul mare: pe albastru, o acuilă de aur cu ciocul și ghiarele roșii, cu coroană regală de aur pe cap, ținând în cioc o cruce pedată (pattée) de aur, ascuțită la extremitatea inferioară, în ghiara dreaptă o spadă, în ghiara stângă un sceptru de aur cu vârful în formă de crin, — acuila României, armele Regalității române.

II. Pe pieptul acuilei, scutul mediu, incuartelat (ecartelé), cu insițiune între cartierele de jos (entré en pointe), cuprinzând armele țărilor surori unite:

1. Sus în dreapta, armele vechiului Principat al Țării-Românești: pe albastru, o acuilă de aur cu ciocul și ghiarele roșii, ținând în cioc o cruce pedată de aur, însoțită de un soare de aur la dreapta, de o lună-nouă de aur la stânga.

2. Sus în stânga, armele vechiului Principat al Moldovei (cu Basarabia și Bucovina): pe roșu, un cap de bour negru cu gura închisă, însoțit de o stea de aur (cu cinci raze) între coarne, de o roză de aur (cu cinci foi) la dreapta, de o semilună de aur la stânga.

3. Jos la dreapta, armele Banatului cu vechiul Banat românesc al Severinului (fixate acum): pe roșu, peste valuri naturale, un pod de aur cu două deschideri boltite, construite din piatră cioplită (podul lui Traian), din care iese un leu de aur.

4. Jos la stânga, armele vechiului Mare-Principat al Transilvaniei (cu părțile Crișanei și Maramureșului): albastru și aur, împărțit printr-o fâșie îngustă roșie, din care iese o acuilă neagră cu ciocul de aur, însoțită de un soare de aur la dreapta, de o semilună de argint la stânga; jos, șapte turnuri roșii, câte patru și trei, cu câte două rânduri de crenele (sus trei, jos patru) și câte două ferestre, cu porțile închise.

5. În insițiune (enté), armele Dobrogei: pe albastru, doi delfini de aur afrontați, cu cozile ridicate în sus.

III. Peste totul, scutul mic, incuartelat de argint și negru, armele Casei domnitoare de Hohenzollern.

Pe scutul mare, coroana de oțel a României.

Scutul e ținut de doi lei de aur, stând pe arabescuri de aur.

Colanul ordinului „Regele Carol I”.

Pe eșarfă albastră cu marginile de aur, de forma cordonului ordinului, deviza Casei domnitoare de Hohenzollern, în litere latine de aur: „Nihil sine Deo”.

Pavilionul de purpură, cu marginile de aur, căptușite cu ermelin, timbrat cu coroană regală de aur ornată cu nestemate.

Art. II. — Stema se va întrebuința în trei forme: 1-a, stema cea mare, cum e descrisă mai sus; a 2-a, stema cea medie, fără pavilion; a 3-a, stema cea mică, compusă din cele trei scuturi cu coroana de oțel.

Stema cea mare se va întrebuința în actele Statului emanate de la Rege și în actele oficiale internaționale, cum și din Înalt ordin al Regelui în cazuri speciale; stema cea medie, de armată și autoritățile Statului; stema cea mică, pe sigile și ștampile oficiale. Pentru alte cazuri, se va prevedea în legile și regulamentele speciale.

Art. III. — Se înființează pe lângă ministrul de interne o comisiune consultativă heraldică care va examina cererile de a se întrebuința stema în alte cazuri decât acelea prevăzute la Art. II și va lua măsuri pentru ca actele administrative în legătură cu stemele să se facă în conformitate cu regulile heraldice.

Un regulament special va stabili organizarea comisiunii.

Art. IV. — Art. 1 până la 5 inclusiv din legea pentru modificarea armelor țării, sancționată cu înaltul decret regal No. 498 din 1872, se abrogă.

———————————

Această lege s-a votat de Senat în ședința dela 18 Iulie 1921 și s'a adoptat cu unanimitate deuna sută unu voturi.

Președinte, GENERAL C. COANDĂ.

(L.S.S.)

Secretar, Brut Hodoș

———————————

Această lege s'a votat de Adunarea deputaților în ședința dela 20 Iulie 1921 și s'a adoptat cu unanimitate de una sută șapte voturi.

Vice-Președinte, Dr. A. IMBROANE

(L.S.A.D.)

Secretar, N. G. Manolescu

———————————

Promulgăm această lege și ordonăm ca ea să fie învestită cu sigiliul Statului și publicată prin Monitorul Oficial.

Dat în București, la 23 Iulie 1921.

(L. S. St.) FERDINAND

 

Ministru de justiție

M. Antonescu

 

No. 3.573

Ministru de interne

C. Argetoianu

 



Greater Achievement

 

 

Lesser Achievement, coloured version

Crowned Coat of Arms

 

Coat of Arms of Romania

 

The eagle stands for Wallachia, the province that is central to Romania's history. The eagle is considered a symbol of Latinity as well as of courage, determination, power, and grandeur. On the bird's chest are traditional crests of Romania's major provinces (Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Crisana) as well as two dolphins symbolizing lands along the Black Sea. Top-left is Wallachia's eagle holding in its beak a golden Orthodox cross. Top-right is Moldavia, symbolized by an auroch head (bison family). Bottom-left, Banat and Oltenia are symbolized by Roman Emperor Trajan's bridge constructed over the Danube in 110 AD. Bottom-right is Transylvania (including Maramures and Crisana) with an eagle and seven crenellated towers of the Siebenbürgen German cities. [1]

 

The law on the achievement of state was left unchanged by the successors of Ferdinand I

 

The Steel Crown of King Carol I

 

 

The Steel Crown of King Carol I of Romania was forged at the Army Arsenal (Arsenalul Armatei) in Bucharest of the steel of a cannon captured by the Romanian Army from the Ottomans during the War of Independence (1877-´78). Carol I chose steel, and not gold, to symbolize the bravery of the Romanian soldiers. He received it during the ceremonies of his coronation and of the proclamation of Romania as a kingdom in 1881. The Crown was used in 1922 at the coronation of King Ferdinand I and Queen Maria as sovereigns of Romania, in Alba-Iulia. The Crown was used also during the coronation and anointing of King Michael I by the Orthodox Patriarch of Romania, Nicodim Munteanu, in the Patriarchal Cathedral of Bucharest, on the day of his second accession on 6 eptember 1940.

 

The Order of King Carol I

 

 

The Order of Carol I (Ordinul Carol I) was instituted on the 10th of May 1909 by King Carol I to celebrate his Ruby Jubilee of 40 years of his reign; The Order was the highest ranking of the Romanian Decorations of the Kingdom of Romania until the abolition of monarchy in 1947.

 

The Collar is in Gold and consists of 10  links of the coats of arms of the  Principality of Wallachia, the Principality of Moldavia, the Principality of Oltenia and the Principality of Dobruja, and the coat of arms of Hohenzollern each separated by the royal cypher of King Carol I. The collar is closed by a lock which is of a crowned (Wallachian) eagle with spread wings with a sword and sceptre in its claws. Hanging from the collar is the badge of the Order being a cross bottony Gules charged with a four-pointed sun-burst, recharged with the Walachian eagle with a medallion of a portrait of King Carol I on its breast, all crowned by the Steel Crown of Romania.

 

In 1921 the collar came around thegreater and lesser  royal arms of Romania

 

Michael

1927-1930

 

The arms of 1921

 

Carol II

1930-1940

 

The arms of 1921

 

National Legionary State

06.09.1940-23/01.1941

 

The ephemeral NLS (Statul Național Legionar) was a one-party dictatorship dominated by the overtly fascist and criminal Iron Guard in conjunction with Prime Minister Ion Antonescu, the commander of the Romanian Army.

The Iron Guard (Garda de Fier) is also known as the Legion of the Archangel Michael (Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail) or the Legionnaire movement (Mișcarea Legionară).

The main symbol used by the Iron Guard was an iron grill and a square cross, standing for prison bars (as a badge of martyrdom), and sometimes referred to as the "Archangel Michael Cross" (Crucea Arhanghelului Mihail).

 

Party Flag

 

Commander’s badge [2]

Party Badge

 

Michael

1940-1947

 

The arms of 1921

 

Republica Popularâ Româna

30.12.1947-28.03.1948

           

An emblem for the republic was adopted by decree nr. 3 pf 8 Januray 1948 published in the Monitorul Oficial CXVI  nr. 7 of 9 January1948, p. 154.

It was:

 

Arms: A landscape, on the foreground a tractor  riding to the sinister and on the background three blast-furnaces, in the sky a rising sun, all proper.

Crest: R.P.R. in blue lettering

Garland: Ears of wheat tied with a ribbon of the national colours blue, yellow and red, in the yellow the official name of the Republic, REPUBLICA POPULARA ROMANA.

 

The description of the emblem reads:

 

Art. 7. Stema Republicii Populare Române este înfăţişată prin un tractor, un grup de trei furnale pe câmpul unui soare care răsare, înconjurat de o inmănunchiere de spice de grâu, legatĕ de o panglică având inscripţia: Republica Populară. Română şi iniţialele R P. R. la capătul spicelor.

 

No picture of the emblem is known but in 1963 and 1966 1 leu coins were issued showing the tractor, mountains and blast-furnaces of the emblem, without the garland.

 

 

Republica Populara Romana

13.04.1948-1955

           

By Constitution of 28. March 1948 Art. 99, an emblem was adopted.

 

 

Arms: A landscape showing  a fir-wood and a mountainridge, on the dexter a derrick and in the sky a rising sun all proper.

Garland: Ears of wheat.

Motto: RPR in white lettering on a ribbon per fess Azure, Or and Gules.

 

The description of the emblem reads

 

Art. 99.

Stema Republicii Populare Romane, reprezinta muntii impaduriti, deasupra carora se ridica soarele. In mijloc se afla o sonda, iar in jurul stemei o coroana de spice de grau. 

 

Republica Populara Romîna

1955 - 21.08.1965

 

By Constitution of the Peoples Republic of Romania of 24 September 1952, Art. 102, a red star was added as a crest.

 

 

Arms: A landscape showing  a fir-wood and a mountainridge, on the dexter a derrick and in the sky a rising sun all proper.

Crest: A five-pointed star Gules

Garland: Ears of wheat.

Motto: RPR in white lettering on a ribbon per fess Azure, Or and Gules

 

The description of the emblem reads

 

Art. 102.

Stema Republicii Populare Romane reprezinta munti impaduriti, deasupra carora se ridica soarele. In partea stanga a stemei se afla o sonda. Stema este incadrata de o cununa de spice de grau. In partea de sus a stemei se afla o stea in cinci colturi. In partea de jos a stemei, spicele sunt infasurate intr-o panglica tricolora pe care sunt scrise literele R.P.R. 

 

Republica Socialista România

21.08.1965- 29.12.1989

 

After the change of status of the Republic into a Socialist Republic the emblem of the state was changed by Constitution of  21 August 1965, Art. 116.

 

Arms: A landscape showing  a fir-wood and a mountainridge, on the dexter a derrick and in the sky a rising sun all proper.

Crest: A five-pointed star Gules

Garland: Ears of wheat.

Motto: REPUBLICA SOCIALISTA in black- and ROMÂNIA in white lettering on a ribbon per fess Azure, Or and Gules

 

The description of the emblem reads

 

Art. 116.

Stema Republicii Socialiste Romania reprezinta munti impaduriti, deasupra carora se ridica soarele. In partea stinga a stemei se afla o sonda. Stema este incadrata de o cununa de spice de griu. In partea de sus a stemei se afla o stea in cinci colturi. In partea de jos a stemei, spicele sint infasurate intr-o panglica tricolora pe care este scris "REPUBLICA SOCIALISTA ROMANIA". 

 

Romania

29.12.1989-present

 

In 1992 a new coat of arms was adopted. This consisted of the arms of 1921, the arms of Hohenzollern in fess point omitted.  The quarter for Oltenia was augmented with a sword in the right claw of the lion. Also the royal sceptre was replaced by a mace as formerly of the voievodes of Moldavia and Walachia. No larger or lesser achievement was adopted and no crown was placed on the upper rim of the arms.

The law reads:

 

Monitorul Oficial al României. p. I, anul IV, Nr. 236 din 24 septembrie 1992

 

Legea privind stema ţării i sigiliul statului.

 

 

    Art. 1. – Stema României simbolizează statul român naţional, suveran şi independent, unitar şi indivisibil şi se compune din două scuturi suprapuse: scutul mare şi scutul mic.

    Scutul mare pe albastru, are o acvilă de aur cu capul spre dreapta, cu ciocul şi ghearele roşii, cu aripile deschise, ţinând în cioc o cruce orthodoxă din aur, în gheara dreaptă o sabie, iar în gheara stângă un buzdugan.

Pe pieptul acvilei se găseşte scutul mic sfertuit cu insiţiune:

   a) în primul cartier este stema Ţării Româneşti: pe albastru, o acvilă de aur cu ciocul şi ghearele roşii, ţinând în cioc o cruce orthodoxă de aur, însoţită de un soare de aur la dreapta şi de o lună nouă de aur la stânga.

   b) în cartierul doi este stema Moldovei: pe roşu, un cap de bour negru, însoţit de o stea de aur între coarne, cu cinci raze, de o roză cu cinci petale la dreapta şi de o lună conturnată la stânga, ambele de argint;

   c) în cartierul trei este stema Banatului şi Olteniei: pe roşu, peste valuri naturale, un pod de aur cu două deschidere boltite, din  care iese un leu de aur ţinând un palo în laba dreaptă din faţă;

   d) în cartierul patru este stema Transilvaniei, cu Maramureşul şi Crişana: un scut tăiat de un brâu roşu îngust; în partea superioră, pe albastru, o acvilă neagră cu ciocul de aur, ieşind din brâul despărţitor, însoţită de un soare de aur la dreapta, de o lună de argint conturnat la stânga; în partea inferioară, pe aur, şapte turnuri roşii, crenelate, dispuse pe două rânduri, patru şi trei;

   e) în insiţiune sunt representate ţinuturile Mării Negre: pe albastru, doi delfini de aur afrontaţi, cu cozile ridicate.

 

Achievement

 

On 11 July 2016 the Steel Crown of Romania was added on the head of the eagle by President Klaus Iohannis.

 

The law of 1992 was changed by law 146 of 2016 which also made provisions for the introduction of the crown on all arms of state, including those on coins and banknotes before 31 of December 2018

The amendments of the law read:

 

Legea nr. 146/2016 pentru modificarea Legii nr. 102/1992 privind stema țării și sigiliul statului

Art. I. -

Legea nr. 102/1992 privind stema țării și sigiliul statului, publicată în Monitorul Oficial al României, Partea I, nr. 236 din 24 septembrie 1992, se modifică după cum urmează:

 

1. La articolul 1, alineatul 2 se modifică și va avea următorul cuprins:

"

Scutul mare, pe albastru, are o acvilă de aur cu capul spre dreapta încoronată, cu ciocul și ghearele roșii, cu aripile deschise, ținând în cioc o cruce ortodoxă din aur, în gheara dreaptă o sabie, iar în gheara stângă un buzdugan."

2. Anexele nr. 1 ș2 se modifică și se înlocuiesc cu anexele nr. 1 ș2 la prezenta lege.

 

Art. II. -

(1) Până la data de 31 decembrie 2018, autoritățile publice au obligația să înlocuiască stemele și sigiliile existente în prezent cu noile modele ale acestora, astfel cum sunt modificate potrivit dispozițiilor prezentei legi.

(2) Până la data prevăzută la alin. (1), cele două modele de stemă a României și respectiv de sigiliu al statului pot fi folosite în continuare.

(3) Monedele și bancnotele emise de Banca Națională a României anterior datei de 31 decembrie 2018 vor continua să circule și după această dată, în paralel cu monedele și bancnotele cu stema nouă.

 

Seal, 1992-2016

Seal, 2016- present

 

 

Royal and Presidential Standards

 

1915-1922

 

 

1922-1947

 

 

1940-1945

Antonescu, conducator

 

 

1974-1989

 

 

1990-present

 

Presidency

 

The Parliament

 

The Parliament of Romania (Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat). Its meeting place is at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest.

 

 

 

 

Intelligence Service

 

In 1865, the Great Chief of Staff of Romania created (inspired by the French system) the 2nd Section (Secția a II-a) to gather and analyze military intelligence. By 1925, after several years of efforts, Mihail Moruzov managed to convince the Chief of Staff about the necessity of a secret service that used civilian employees to gather intelligence for the military. In 1940 it was founded as the Special Service of Intelligence (Serviciul Special de Informații).

Through the communist period the Security (Securitate) was the political police that was involved in repressing dissent. During the Romanian Revolution, soon after taking power, President Ion Iliescu signed the decree which integrated the Securitate into the Ministry of Defense, thus bringing it under his control.

The head of the Security, together with some of his deputies, were arrested on December 31, 1989; Iliescu named Gelu Voican Voiculescu as the new head of the Securitate. Voiculescu assured the Securitate agents that he did not intent to wage a war against individual Securitate officers and, by mid-January 1990, the Securitate officers continued their activity in their old headquarters.

Emblem of the Securitate, 1948

 

The initials mean: Direcția Generală a Securității Poporului, a service founded 30.08.1948, by Decree nr. 221  and existing until 30.03.1951.

 

Later the emblem of state was used.

 

The Romanian Intelligence Service (Serviciul Român de Informații, abbreviated SRI) was founded after the abolition of the Securitate on 26 March 1990. It is Romania's main domestic intelligence service. Its role is to gather information relevant to national security and hand it over to relevant institutions, such as the Romanian Government, the presidency and the law enforcement departments and agencies.

 

Seal

 

Emblem

 

Foreign Intelligence Service

 

The Foreign Intelligence Service, or Serviciul de Informații Externe (SIE), is, by Law no. 1/1998, "the state body specialized in foreign intelligence concerning the national security and the safeguarding of Romania and its interests".

By Decree no. 111/February 8, 1990 issued by the Committee of the National Salvation Front, the Foreign Intelligence Centre (Centrul de Informații Externe (CIE)) was confirmed as an institution of the Romanian state, mandated to carry out its activity in the field of foreign intelligence. Law no. 39/December 13, 1990 gave an identity to the Foreign Intelligence Service, as this regulatory act stipulates for the first time the name of the SIE, as a CSAT member.

 

Seal

 

Police

 

The Romanian Police (Poliția Română) is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania. It is subordinated to the Ministry of Administration and Interior and it is led by a General Inspector with the rank of Secretary of State.

 

Coat of Arms

 

 

 

Cap Badge

Sleeve patch

 

Armed Forces

Ministry of Defense

 

Minister of Defense

 

 

Tri Service

 

 

 

 

Army

 

Army flag 1863

Alexander Ioan Cuza

 

Înalt ordin de d̗i

No. 274.

Bucureșci 19 Martie Anulŭ 1863

 

Avîndŭ în vedere că armele Principatelorŭ-Unite nu sunt încă ficsate după noua stare de lucrurĭ.

Considerîndŭ că convențiunea printr'unŭ anecsŭ alŭ eĭ, prevedea prin banderolă, simbolulŭ unireĭ armateĭ Principatelorŭ; dar acésta în suposiție că ambele țărĭ eraŭ separate.

Considerîndŭ că în urma unirei definitivă, recunoscută de tóte puterile garante, suntemŭ chemațĭ a hotărî și emblema viitóre a Romanieĭ.

Avînd în vedere că de la anulŭ 1861 și pînă acum regimentelorŭ Nr. 6 și 7 și bataliónelorŭ de geniŭ și vînători nu li s'aŭ datŭ drapele, nefiind hotărîtă nici o emblemă.

Considerîndŭ că armata, în urma unireĭ nu trebuie să aibă de cât unŭ singurŭ drapelŭ.

Avîndŭ în vedere că adevărata emblemă a Romănieĭ nu póte fi alta de cît acvila Romană.

Asupra raportuluĭ, Ministeruluĭ Nostru Secretarŭ de Statŭ la Resbelŭ, cu Nr. 2433.

Art. I. Acvila Romană cu crucea în gură se va pune, ca emblema Romăniei, d'asupra drapelelor armateĭ.

Art. II. Zimbrul și Vulturul într'unițĭ constituind armele Romăniei vor forma sigiliul și timbrul statuluĭ.

Art. III. Și cel din urmă; Ministrul Nostru secretar de stat la Ministerul de resbel, este însărcinat cu esecutarea ordonanței de față.

 

ALECSANDRU IOAN

Ministru de Resbel

General Florescu.

 

King Carol I

General Bertholet decorating Romanian Officers after the battle of Mărăşti (August 1917)

 

King Ferdinand (after 1921)

King Carol II

King Mihai I

 

1950-1952 (obverse)

 

1966-1989 (Obverse

Present Army Banner

Obverse & Reverse

 

Navy

 

 

Naval Ensign

 

1950-1951 (obverse)

 

1951-1966

 

Present Navy Banner

obverse & reverse

 

Naval Jack

 

1921-1948

1954-1966

1966-1989

1998-present

1995-1998

 

Air Force

 

Achievement

 

Present Air Force Banner,

 obverse & reverse

 

Roundel

 

 

 

 

1941-1944

1948

 

Pilot Badges

 

Though the first distinctive breast badge was introduced only in 1915, the overview of military pilots’ insignia of the kingdom of Romania won’t be complete without mentioning early collar insignia worn by aviators on the initial stage just before the Great War broke out.

The earliest known aviators’ insignia was introduced in 1913 when the Royal decree announced an institution of the Romanian military air forces (Aeronautica Militară Română) within national engineer troops. The law regulating Aeronautics organization (Legea Organizării Aeronauticii) was officially published on April 20, 1913 three days after the military aviation as a separate branch was instituted.

As far as no badges were introduced on the initial stage, special insignia were worn by the first airmen to distinguish them from the engineer personnel. It consisted of the following emblems.

 

- Collar metal emblem representing French Blériot XI monoplane facing left.

- Cloth patch worn on the upper left sleeve of a tunic. It represented a so-called “Royal eagle” (Pajura Regală) with spread vertical wings holding a bomb in its claws. It appeared again in 1941 as a main emblem of the Romanian Air forces personnel. 

- “AV” letters sewn on the front of a kepi.

 

 

The first Military pilot breast badge was instituted after the Romanian Aviation Corps (Corpul de Aviaţie Român) was created on 10 August 1915. Design of this and following badges was unique.

The badge represented “Royal eagle” (Pajura Regală) with uplifted wings holding a bomb in its claws and bearing the crowned cypher of the king Ferdinand I (two letters “F”) on its chest.

The Military pilot badge was worn on the left side of a tunic and had horizontal or vertical pin and catch on its reverse. Some badges were attached to the uniform using a broad clip.

It was made of bronze and silvered bronze.

There was a maker’s mark “J.Reschl & Fii” (“J.Reschl & Sons”) on the reverse of some badges.

Due to the lack of official standards the badges differed in size and design details. Four variants of this type of badge are known:

1. The royal cypher and crown details are red enameled. Horizontal pin and catch on reverse,  maker’s mark “J.Reschl & Fii” (the most rare variant).

2. The royal cypher is blue enameled, vertical pin and catch on reverse, no maker’s mark. These badges were probably made in Paris (rare variant).

3. No enamel finish, vertical pin and catch on reverse. Some badges have “J.Reschl & Fii” maker’s mark on their reverse. This is the most common variant of the Military pilot badge from the Ferdinand I reign that was issued in 1915-1920.

4. No enamel finish, horizontal pin and catch on reverse. Mass production variant issued in 1920-1930.

Miniatures of this badge were also manufactured. They differed in size, obverse details (some had blue enamel) and attachment method. 

Though a new badge bearing cypher of the next king Mihai I was introduced after the death of Ferdinand I (July 20, 1927) pilots still kept on wearing the previous type of badge.

 

1928 (Mihai I regency)

A special version of this badge limited to five pieces was issued in 1928 to commemorate the victory of the Romanian squadron at the air contest between teams from the “Little Entente” countries and Poland (Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revision and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration).

Unlike the ordinary badge this one was made of silver had an additional horizontal gilt laurel leaf. Five Romanian pilots were decorated, namely captain Romeo Popescu, lieutenant R.Atănase (unfortunately name is unknown), Gheorghe Ştefănescu, Traian Burduloiu and Gheorghe Ceauşu.

 During the first reign of the king Mihai I (regency period, July 20, 1927 – June 08, 1930) Military pilot badge with his cipher was privately issued. It was manufactured in small jewelry workshops by overlapping new cipher on that of Ferdinand.

Two variants of this type of badge are known.

 

 

1. The Ferdinand I-era badge (3rd variant issued in 1915-1920 with a vertical pin) was used as a base. Blue enameled “M I” letters within a rim were overlapped on Ferdinand’s cypher. This simple process led to the presence of two royal crowns – that of Ferdinand I and that of Mihai I below

2. The Ferdinand I-era badge (4th variant issued in 1920-1930 with a horizontal pin) was used as a base. Dark blue enameled “M I” letters within a broad enameled rim were overlapped on Ferdinand’s cypher.

 

June 1931– September 1940 (Carol II)

 

Fundamentally new design of the Military pilot badge was introduced during Carol II reign (June 08,1930 – September 06, 1940).

The badge was instituted on June 06, 1931 by the Royal decree No.1935.

It had a form of a pair of spread wings with a crowned blue enameled cypher of king Carol II (two bound letters “C”) in the middle and a sword with an edge in a form of propeller.

The badge (66´36 mm) was made of silvered bronze and had a horizontal pin and catch on its reverse. The crown and outer rim were not silvered and retained bronze color.

Military pilot badge was worn either above the left breast pocket of a tunic or on the pocket itself.

Miniatures of the badge differed in size, obverse details (some had blue enamel) and attachment method.

 

September 1940 – January 1941 (Mihai I)

During the second reign of the king Mihai I (September 06, 1940 – December 30, 1947) three types of the Military pilot badge were introduced. The first transitional type was issued between the three last months of 1940 and the beginning of 1941. The cypher of the abdicated king was changed to that of Mihai I (situation similar to the regency years when the Ferdinand badges were modified in a same way). These badges were made mostly in private jewelry workshops. 

Thus the Military pilot badge represented a pair of spread wings with a crowned cypher of Mihai I (an “I” within a bigger “M”) in the middle and a sword with a blade in a form of a propeller.

The badge (66´36 mm) was made of silvered bronze and had a horizontal pin and catch on its reverse. The crown and outer rim were not silvered and retained its bronze color.

The Military pilot badge was worn either above the left breast pocket of a tunic or on the pocket itself.

 

January-June 1941 (Mihai I)

The next type of the Mihai I-era Military pilot badge was instituted in the beginning of 1941 to avoid confusion with the badges bearing Carol II cypher.

The badge represented a pair of spread wings and a sword with an edge in a form of propeller. A cross formed with four crowned blue enameled royal ciphers of king Mihai I (“I” within bigger “M”) was placed in a middle.

The badge (66´36 mm) was made of silvered bronze and had a horizontal pin and catch on its reverse. Crowns and outer rim were not silvered and retained bronze color.

The Military pilot badge was worn either above the left breast pocket of the tunic or on the pocket itself.

 

June 1941 – December 1947 (Mihai I)

 

The final type of the Mihai I-era Military pilot badge was instituted by Royal decree of May 26, 1941 (proclaimed on 4 June, 1941) and remained unchanged until the abolishment of the monarchy on 30 December. In spite of its fundamentally different look it was in fact a return to the design of a Ferdinand-era badge.

The obverse represents a so-called “Royal eagle” (Pajura Regală) with uplifted wings holding a bomb in its claws. The crowned Romanian escutcheon with a centered black-and-white Royal House shield is situated in the middle of its chest. Escutcheon, shield and crown details were enameled.

The badge (43´44 mm) was made of silvered bronze and had a vertical hollow tube for an attachment on the reverse. A small amount of badges was made of silver.

The rarest variant is that made of silvered bronze (58´45 mm) with horizontal pin and catch. There are two stamps on its reverse – year of issue on the right wing and probably a serial or order number on the left.

Pilots used to wear the badge either on the left breast pocket of a tunic or above it. Sometimes it was worn extremely high nearly next to the shoulder strap.

Miniatures of the badge of silvered bronze and enamel were manufactured as well.

Romanian Military pilot badges were also awarded to German pilots together with an award document. [3]

 

 

 

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 © Hubert de Vries

 

 



[1] Image: The Story of My Life by Marie Queen of Romania.Text: Romania Redux - A View from Harvard by Dan Dimancescu

[2] From: eMedals.com

[3] http://antique-photos.com/en/awardsdatabase/kingdom-romania/400-military-pilot-badges.html